The biggest challenge facing highly antiretroviral-experienced patients and their caregivers is the diminishing number of therapeutic options available that sustain activity despite increasing numbers of drug-resistance mutations. New options in antiretroviral treatment have been introduced: two new members of traditional antiretroviral classes (darunavir and etravirine) and two drugs with novel mechanisms of action (raltegravir and maraviroc). Each was approved for use in treatment-experienced patients. A fifth drug-containing efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla; Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, NY, and Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA) - is a novel coformulation of existing drugs from two different classes, simplifying administration with the intent of increasing adherence. Because successful management of HIV infection requires the simultaneous use of three or more drugs, understanding the pharmacologic aspects of coadministration is critical. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic properties affecting the administration of these recently approved drugs in light of highly active antiretroviral treatment guidelines. © Current Medicine Group LLC 2008.