We conducted a 2-sample pharmacokinetic study of oseltamivir in 12 premature infants. Oseltamivir 1 mg/kg/dose twice daily in infants <38 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 8) resulted in oseltamivir carboxylate exposure comparable to previously published pediatric data, which helps prospectively validate this regimen. Oseltamivir 3 mg/kg/dose once daily in premature infants >38 weeks postmenstrual age (born prematurely but chronologically past term, n = 4) resulted in similar oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate exposure. Although these results suggest persistence of immature renal function in this subgroup, further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic description is required to confirm the appropriateness of this regimen. © 2012 The Author.