Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to Discuss milestones in the emergence of IMCI as a strategy for child health promotion in developing countries. Discuss the key objectives of the IMCI program. Describe the core technical components of IMCI with emphasis on the evidence base of the associated interventions. Analyze limitations and challenges of the IMCI initiative. Appraise the current status of IMCI and the prospects for scaling it up to improve child health globally. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.