Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to Present a synopsis of the status of evidence-based global maternal and child health practice and policy, with particular emphasis on developing countries. Discuss the methods, advantages and criticisms of evidence-based practice. Discuss relevant historical milestones in the emergence of the evidence-based maternal and child health movement. Identify and describe specific examples of maternal and child health interventions that are currently considered evidence based and evaluate research priorities relevant to achievement of maternal and child health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.