It is expected that the role of the clinical pathologist will evolve from the more passive role of managing testing facilities to one of active service provider, using powerful molecular, cell biologic, and biochemical tools. The scope of knowledge required to be an effective physician scientist or an accomplished practicing clinical pathologist, however, cannot be acquired through clinical training alone and requires dedicated, structured research learning time. The goal of this article is to consider mechanisms that effectively integrate research training and scholarly activity into residency education in laboratory medicine/clinical pathology. The proposed curricula are purposely unstructured to allow maximum flexibility for training programs to meet the needs and career goals of individual residents. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.