U. urealyticum and M. hominis can no longer be considered as harmless commensals of the lower genitourinary tract. Both can produce disease in humans. Diagnosis and management of infections due to these organisms must be based upon isolation of the organisms from the affected site and preferably the number of organisms present. Due to the frequent resistance of both organisms to tetracycline, treatment must be based upon appropriate antibiotic sensitivities. For a more detailed description of the basic biology of these organisms and isolation and identification and treatment, the reader is referred to several recent reviews.