Objective: We assessed the efficacy of a maternal multidose azithromycin (AZI) regimen, with and without antiinflammatory agents to delay preterm birth and to mitigate fetal lung injury associated with Ureaplasma parvum intraamniotic infection. Study Design: Long-term catheterized rhesus monkeys (n = 16) received intraamniotic inoculation of U parvum (107 colony-forming U/mL, serovar 1). After contraction onset, rhesus monkeys received no treatment (n = 6); AZI (12.5 mg/kg, every 12 h, intravenous for 10 days; n = 5); or AZI plus dexamethasone and indomethacin (n = 5). Outcomes included amniotic fluid proinflammatory mediators, U parvum cultures and polymerase chain reaction, AZI pharmacokinetics, and the extent of fetal lung inflammation. Results: Maternal AZI therapy eradicated U parvum intraamniotic infection from the amniotic fluid within 4 days. Placenta and fetal tissues were 90% culture negative at delivery. AZI therapy significantly delayed preterm delivery and prevented advanced fetal lung injury, although residual acute chorioamnionitis persisted. Conclusion: Specific maternal antibiotic therapy can eradicate U parvum from the amniotic fluid and key fetal organs, with subsequent prolongation of pregnancy, which provides a therapeutic window of opportunity to effectively reduce the severity of fetal lung injury. © 2012 Mosby, Inc.