© 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Lipoblastoma is a rare fatty tumor that is diagnosed almost exclusively in children. Presentation often consists of respiratory symptoms; chest computed tomography shows a hypodense, low, attenuated mediastinal mass. Surgical approach and anesthetic management are dependent on the location of the tumor and the degree of airway compression; in most cases, a thoracotomy is performed, although a sternotomy is used in selected cases. Final diagnosis can be confirmed using molecular genetic analysis; a genetic hallmark of lipoblastoma is the rearrangement of chromosomal region 8q12 and the PLAG1 gene. Tumor recurrence is rare when a complete resection is performed.