Preliminary studies of human renal transplants suggested that pulsed Doppler sonography may complement other studies of renal transplant dysfunction. To further evaluate the Doppler technique, 11 dogs who received renal transplants were examined a total of 50 times. No antirejection chemotherapy was used, and following rejection the kidneys were removed and examined histologically. The canine transplants underwent accelerated acute or hyperacute rejection. A pulsed Doppler index (PDI) was derived to quantitate patterns of renal blood flow and peripheral vascular resistance. Arterial Doppler signals were obtained from renal transplant branch vessels in vivo and the PDI consistently fell as rejection occurred. No arterial signals were obtained from one kidney which was subsequently proven to have arterial thrombosis. Pulsed Doppler analysis provides new information about renal transplant blood flow patterns and may demonstrate evidence of rejection and renal arterial occlusion. © 1985.