Both differences and similarities exist between mammalian species in the projections from entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal formation. In most species, layer II cells of the entorhinal cortex project to the dentate gyrus, and they terminate in the outer two-thirds of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. The axons from layer III cells project bilaterally to areas CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, terminating in the stratum lacunosum moleculare. We have analyzed these projections in mice, and in general, the entorhinal cortex-to-hippocampus projections are similar to those in rats. Axons from layer II neurons terminate in the outer and middle thirds of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, and axons from layer III neurons terminate bilaterally in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of areas CA1 and CA3, and in the molecular layer of the subiculum. However, in contrast to rat, mouse entorhinal cortex neurons do not appreciably project to the contralateral dentate gyrus. Most species, including mice, show a similar topographical organization of the entorhinal-hippocampal projections, with neurons in the lateral part of both the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex projecting to the dorsal part or septal pole of the hippocampus, whereas the projection to the ventral hippocampus originates primarily from neurons in medial parts of the entorhinal cortex. Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.