The innate immune response is the first line of defense against most viral infections. Its activation promotes cell signaling, which reduces virus replication in infected cells and leads to induction of the antiviral state in yet-uninfected cells. This inhibition of virus replication is a result of the activation of a very broad spectrum of specific cellular genes, with each of their products usually making a small but detectable contribution to the overall antiviral state. The lack of a strong, dominant function for each gene product and the ability of many viruses to interfere with the development of the antiviral response strongly complicate identification of the antiviral activity of the activated individual cellular genes. However, we have previously developed and applied a new experimental system which allows us to define a critical function of some members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family in clearance of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus mutants from infected cells. In this new study, we demonstrate that PARP7, PARP10, and the long isoform of PARP12 (PARP12L) function as important and very potent regulators of cellular translation and virus replication. The translation inhibition and antiviral effect of PARP12L appear to be mediated by more than one protein function and are a result of its direct binding to polysomes, complex formation with cellular RNAs (which is determined by both putative RNA-binding and PARP domains), and catalytic activity. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.