Objective: To clarify the association between childhood pregnancy and risk of stillbirth. Study design: We analyzed singleton and twin pregnancies that occurred in children (10-14 years old) in the United States from 1989 to 2000. We estimated the absolute and relative risks of stillbirth by using 15- to19-year-old and 20- to 24-year-old mothers as comparison groups. Results: The analysis involved 17.8 million singletons and 337,904 individual twins. The rate of stillbirth was highest in pediatric mothers for both singletons (12.8/1000) and twins (56/1000) compared with adolescent (6.8/1000 in singletons and 29/1000 in twins) and mature (5.5/1000 in singletons and 20/1000 in twins) mothers. After adjusting for confounding characteristics, pediatric mothers continued to exhibit significantly elevated risk for stillbirth in both singletons (odds ratio, 1.57; 95%CI, 1.49-1.66) and twins (odds ratio, 1.97; 95%CI, 1.42-2.73). Preterm birth rather than small size for gestational age was revealed by means of sequential modeling to account for the excess risk of stillbirth observed in pediatric gravidas. Conclusion: Pregnancy in childhood is a risk factor for stillbirth; shortened gestation rather than reduction in fetal growth is the mediating pathway. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.