Transition of care from pediatric to adult providers is an essential step in the care of young adults with sickle cell anemia. Transition programs should be developed by individual institutions to systematically enhance the transition process for their patients. Prior to transfer, patients must be educated about their disease and personal medical history and develop skill sets required to navigate the adult health care setting. The objective of this literature review is to identify key concepts associated with transition of care for patients with sickle cell anemia. First, transition programs should be developed so that education about transition can begin at an early age. The readiness of patients and families should be assessed and education tailored to meet individual patient needs. Finally, the emotions and fears about transition should be recognized and addressed prior to transition.