OBJECTIVE - We evaluated the associations of self-reported diabetes with serum ferritin concentration, transferrin saturation (TfSat), and HFE C282Y and H63D mutations in six racial/ethnic groups recruited at five field centers in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Analyses were conducted on 97,470 participants. Participants who reported a previous diagnosis of diabetes and/or hemochromatosis or iron overload were compared with participants who did not report a previous diagnosis. RESULTS - The overall prevalence of diabetes was 13.8%; the highest prevalence was in Pacific Islanders (20.1%). Of all participants with diabetes, 2.0% reported that they also had hemochromatosis or iron overload. The mean serum ferritin concentration was significantly greater in women with diabetes in all racial/ethnic groups and in Native-American men with diabetes than in those without diabetes. The mean serum ferritin concentration was significantly lower in Asian men with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Mean TfSat was lower in participants with diabetes from all racial/ethnic groups except Native-American women than in those without diabetes. There was no significant association of diabetes with HFE genotype. The mean serum ferritin concentration was greater (P < 0.0001) in women with diabetes than in those without diabetes for HFE genotypes except C282Y/C282Y and C282Y/H63D. Log serum ferritin concentration was significantly associated with diabetes in a logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex, racial/ethnic group, HFE genotype, and field center. CONCLUSIONS - Serum ferritin concentration is associated with diabetes, even at levels below those typically associated with hemochromatosis or iron overload. © 2006 by the American Diabetes Association.