Eight hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity had frequent, severe, or unusual infections and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) or immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD). Thus, we performed serum Ig isotyping and other characterization of 43 additional unselected probands, 5 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings, and 240 consecutive CVID or IgGSD index patients. C282Y allele frequencies were estimated in 58 CVID or IgGSD index patients without hemochromatosis phenotypes and in 341 controls. HLA-A and -B haplotypes and frequencies were determined in all 51 probands, 186 CVID or IgGSD index patients without hemochromatosis phenotypes, and 751 controls. Thirteen unselected probands (30%) had CVID or IgGSD. Among all 21 hemochromatosis probands with CVID (n = 4) or IgGSD (n = 17), Ig subclass deficiency patterns were IgG1 (n = 5), IgG1 and IgG3 (n = 6), IgG3 (n = 9), and IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4 (n = 1). IgG2 or IgA deficiency was not detected; one proband had IgM deficiency. Mean values of total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 were significantly lower in probands with CVID or IgGSD. Mean values of age, transferrin saturation, and ferritin at diagnosis and phlebotomy units required to induce iron depletion were similar in probands with or without CVID or IgGSD; phlebotomy had no apparent effect on IgG levels. C282Y frequencies were similar in CVID or IgGSD index cases without hemochromatosis phenotypes and in controls. There was concordance of Ig and hemochromatosis phenotypes in probands and respective HLA-identical siblings. Eight of 240 CVID or IgGSD index patients had hemochromatosis phenotypes and C282Y homozygosity (3 vs 0.7% and 0.2% controls; P < 0.0001, respectively). The frequency of A*03-B*07 was greater in CVID and IgGSD index cases without hemochromatosis phenotypes than in controls (0.0968 vs 0.0546, respectively; P = 0.0032). HLA-A*03-B*07 was the predominant haplotype in probands grouped by presence or absence of CVID or IgGSD. Some probands in each group were A*03-B*07 homozygotes; group A*03-B*07 frequencies were similar. We conclude that serum IgG abnormalities characteristic of CVID or IgGSD are common in hemochromatosis probands, and that the prevalence of hemochromatosis is increased in CVID and IgGSD index cases. These observations could be explained by the increased frequencies of HLA-A*03-B*07 in C282Y homozygotes and in CVID and IgGSD, and by the common occurrence of putative CVID or IgGSD allele(s) on haplotypes bearing C282Y. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.