Fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in basement membranes and interstitial tissues, resulting from increased synthesis or decreased degradation of ECM or both. The plasminogen activator/plasmin system plays an important role in ECM degradation, whereas the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a physiologic inhibitor of plasminogen activators. PAI-1 expression is increased in the lung fibrotic diseases and in experimental fibrosis models. The deletion of the PAI-1 gene reduces, whereas the overexpression of PAI-1 enhances, the susceptibility of animals to lung fibrosis induced by different stimuli, indicating an important role of PAI-1 in the development of lung fibrosis. Many growth factors, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), as well as other chemicals/agents, induce PAI-1 expression in cultured cells and in vivo. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) have been shown to mediate the induction of PAI-1 by many of these stimuli. This review summarizes some recent findings that help us to understand the role of PAI-1 in the development of lung fibrosis and ROS/RNS in the regulation of PAI-1 expression during fibrogenesis. © 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.