Rac1 has been implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types, but the enzymatic origin of the ROS has not been proven. The present studies demonstrate that Nox1, a homolog of the phagocyte NADPH-oxidase component gp91phox, is activated by Rac1. When Nox1 is co-expressed along with its regulatory subunits NOXO1 and NOXA1, significant ROS generation is seen. Herein, co-expression of constitutively active Rac1(G12V), but not wild-type Rac1, resulted in marked further stimulation of activity. Decreased Rac1 expression using small interfering RNA reduced Nox1-dependent ROS. CDC42(G12V) failed to increase activity, and small interfering RNA directed against CDC42 failed to decrease activity, pointing to specificity for Rac. TPR domain mutants of NOXA1 that interfere with Rac1 binding were ineffective in supporting Nox1-dependent ROS generation. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a complex containing Rac1(G12V), NOXO1, NOXA1, and Nox1. CDC42(G12V) could not substitute for Rac1(G12V) in such a complex. Nox1 formed a complex with Rac1(G12V) that was independent of NOXA1 and NOXO1, consistent with direct binding of Rac1(G12V) to Nox1. Rac1(G12V) interaction with NOXA1 was enhanced by Nox1 and NOXO1, suggesting cooperative binding. A model is presented comparing activation by regulatory subunits of Nox1 versus gp91 phox (Nox2) in which Rac1 activation provides amajor trigger that acutely activates Nox1-dependent ROS generation. © 2006 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.