© 2014 H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. All rights reserved. Background: The mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells can be a limiting factor for transplantation, yet little is known about how the availability of novel mobilizing agents has affected the practices of oncologists and transplant specialists.Methods: US-based oncologists (n = 48) and transplant specialists (n = 46) were separately surveyed with a partial overlap of assessed information.Results: More transplant specialists than oncologists believed that the time between referral and first consultation is adequate (89.1% vs 54.2%; P < .001). The presence of comorbidities was the most common reason for patients not being referred for transplantation. Among oncologists, 31.3% avoided cyclophosphamide and 16.7% avoided lenalidomide to prevent mobilization impairment in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Chemotherapy mobilization for MM was used by 23.9% of transplant specialists due to higher CD34+ yields and by 21.7% due to its anti-MM effect. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 26.1% of transplant specialists used chemotherapy mobilization due to higher CD34+ yields, and 26.1% collected hematopoietic stem cells on the rebound prior to chemotherapy. With regard to plerixafor use in MM, 36.9% of transplant specialists reported that they did not use it, and 28.3% said they reserved it for second mobilization. In NHL, 4.3% of transplant specialists reported not using plerixafor, and 39.1% reserved it for second mobilization.Conclusions: Educational needs were identified to promote adequate referral for transplantation as well as successful and cost-effective methods for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells.