A disconcertingly wide variation exists in the literature as to the accuracy of duplex Doppler sonography in the detection of acute renal transplant rejection. Sensitivities range from 9% to 76%. In an attempt to explain the disparity of results, we undertook a double-blind prospective study of the accuracy of duplex Doppler ultrasound in the detection of acute rejection in renal transplants. We scanned 49 consecutive patients with a total of 65 biopsies; 46 biopsies in 33 consecutive patients were included in our study. In our population, the prevalence of acute rejection was 61% (28/46). Using a resistive index (RI) cutoff of greater than 0.90 based on the main renal artery flow pattern, the sensitivity of our test was 43%, with a 67% specificity. The positive predictive value was 67%. Our results are contrasted and compared with the published data from other groups in a critical survey of the literature. We conclude that duplex Doppler sonography alone is inadequate to evaluate acute rejection in renal transplants. © 1990, National Kidney Foundation, Inc.. All rights reserved.