Bronchial artery embolization was performed in two patients with anomalous origins of the bronchial artery. In one patient, the anomalous bronchial artery originated from the convex surface of the aortic arch between the origins of the brachiocephalic and left carotid arteries, while in the other, it originated from the internal mammary artery. Anomalous bronchial arteries represent a potential pitfall during bronchial artery embolization. Radiologists involved in embolotherapy for hemoptysis should therefore be alerted to the possible presence of anomalous bronchial arteries, especially when significant bronchial artery supply to areas of abnormal pulmonary parenchyma is not demonstrated at a catheter search or aortography of the descending aorta. In these instances, arch aortography should be performed to identify anomalous origins of the bronchial arteries or other nonbronchial systemic collateral vessels. © 1990, Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved.