© 2015 Elsevier Inc. To identify the optimal choice for first-line chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC), we investigated the outcomes between cisplatin and non-cisplatin regimens in patients with metastatic UC after perioperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy (PCBC) in a multicenter retrospective study. In patients who had undergone previous PCBC for UC, a repeat challenge with cisplatin conferred poorer overall survival, especially in those with progression in < 1 year. Introduction The optimal choice of first-line chemotherapy for patients with relapse of urothelial carcinoma (UC) after perioperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy (PCBC) is unclear. We investigated the outcomes with cisplatin rechallenge versus a non-cisplatin regimen in patients with recurrent metastatic UC after PCBC in a multicenter retrospective study. Patients and Methods Individual patient-level data were collected for patients who had received various first-line chemotherapy regimens for advanced UC after previous PCBC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the prognostic ability of the type of perioperative and first-line chemotherapy to independently affect overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after accounting for known prognostic factors. Results Data were available for 145 patients (12 centers). The mean age was 62 years; the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was > 0 for 42.0% of the patients. Of the 145 patients, 63% had received cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. The median time from previous chemotherapy (TFPC) was 6.2 months (range, 1-154 months). The median OS was 22 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 18-27 months), and the median PFS was 6 months (95% CI, 5-7 months). A better ECOG PS and a longer TFPC (> 12 months vs. ≤ 12 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.52; P < .001) was prognostic for OS and PFS. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with poor OS (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.13-3.06; P = .015), which appeared to be pronounced in those patients with a TFPC of ≤ 12 months. Retreatment with cisplatin in the first-line setting was associated with worse OS (HR, 3.38; P < .001). Conclusion The results of the present retrospective analysis suggest that for patients who have undergone previous PCBC for UC, rechallenging with cisplatin might confer a poorer OS, especially for those with progression within < 1 year.