Purpose: To localize pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in developing and adult human ocular tissues. Methods: PEDF was localized in fetal and adult eyes by immunofluorescence with a polyclonal antibody (pAb) against amino acids 327-343 of PEDF, or a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the C-terminal 155 amino acids of PEDF. Specificity of the antibodies was documented by Western blotting. PEDF mRNA was localized in adult retina by in situ hybridization. Results: In developing retinas (7.4 to 21.5 fetal weeks, Fwks), pAb anti-PEDF labeled retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) granules, developing cones, some neuroblasts and many cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). In adult retinas, pAb anti-PEDF labeled rod and cone cytoplasm and nuclei of rods but not cones. Cells in the INL and GCL, choroid, corneal epithelium and endothelium, and ciliary body were also pAb PEDF-positive. Preadsorption of pAb anti-PEDF with the immunizing peptide blocked specific labeling in retina and other tissues, except for photoreceptor outer segments. In agreement with the immunolocalization with pAb anti-PEDF, in situ hybridization revealed PEDF mRNA in the RPE, photoreceptors, inner nuclear layer cells and ganglion cells in adult retina. In developing retinas 18 Fwks and older, and in adult retinas, mAb anti-PEDF labeled the interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM). Western blots of retina, cornea, and ciliary body/iris with pAb anti-PEDF produced several bands at about 46 kDa. With mAb anti-PEDF, retina produced one band at about 46 kDa; cornea and ciliary body/iris had several bands at about 46 kDa. Conclusions: PEDF, originally reported as a product of RPE cells, is present in photoreceptors and inner retinal cell types in developing and adult human eyes. Photoreceptors and RPE may secrete PEDF into the IPM.