The development and characterization of viral based vaccine vectors is an extremely active research field. Much of this work has been facilitated by developments in molecular biology that allow work with large plasmid-based vectors, as well as the use of PCR. Several different vector systems are now available using RNA viruses and DNA viruses. Each vector system has its own strengths and weaknesses. Due to the differences and diversity between the viruses used as vectors, it is doubtful that a single system will be useful for all desired vaccines. However, the further development of existing, as well as potentially new systems, will provide a repertoire for vaccinologists to design the recombinant vaccine which will generate an optimal humoral and immune response for protection against infection or disease caused by pathogens that infect via mucosal surfaces.