Vaccines that stimulate both cellular and humoral immunity will probably be needed to control many infectious diseases. Previously, our laboratory generated a vaccine vector that uses poliovirus genomes (replicons) in which the capsid genes have been replaced by foreign proteins. In the current study, we have evaluated the immune responses induced by immunization using poliovirus replicons encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). Although intramuscular administration of replicons resulted in GFP expression in the muscle, the levels of anti-GFP antibodies in serum were low compared to those of mice immunized with soluble, recombinant GFP (rGFP). Intramuscular booster immunization with rGFP in animals primed with replicons encoding GFP resulted in production of both serum IgG1 and IgG2a GFP-specific antibodies. The cells isolated from spleens of animals primed with replicons and boosted with rGFP secreted IFN-γ after in vitro stimulation with rGFP. Intramuscular immunization of animals with a single dose of replicons encoding GFP followed by two intranasal applications of rGFP resulted in serum GFP-specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, consistent with induction of both humoral and cellular responses. The results of this study establish that immunization with replicons followed by boost with soluble antigen, even at a different site, can generate a more diverse immune response compared with immunization regimen using soluble antigen alone. This strategy could be exploited for the development of new vaccine approaches against infectious diseases.