Pig kidney graft survival in a baboon for 136 days: Longest life-supporting organ graft survival to date

Academic Article


  • © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The longest survival of a non-human primate with a life-supporting kidney graft to date has been 90 days, although graft survival > 30 days has been unusual. A baboon received a kidney graft from an α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pig transgenic for two human complement-regulatory proteins and three human coagulation-regulatory proteins (although only one was expressed in the kidney). Immunosuppressive therapy was with ATG+anti-CD20mAb (induction) and anti-CD40mAb+rapamycin+corticosteroids (maintenance). Anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6R were administered. The baboon survived 136 days with a generally stable serum creatinine (0.6 to 1.6 mg/dl) until termination. No features of a consumptive coagulopathy (e.g.; thrombocytopenia, decreased fibrinogen) or of a protein-losing nephropathy were observed. There was no evidence of an elicited anti-pig antibody response. Death was from septic shock (Myroides spp). Histology of a biopsy on day 103 was normal, but by day 136, the kidney showed features of glomerular enlargement, thrombi, and mesangial expansion. The combination of (i) a graft from a specific genetically engineered pig, (ii) an effective immunosuppressive regimen, and (iii) anti-inflammatory agents prevented immune injury and a protein-losing nephropathy, and delayed coagulation dysfunction. This outcome encourages us that clinical renal xenotransplantation may become a reality.
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    Author List

  • Iwase H; Liu H; Wijkstrom M; Zhou H; Singh J; Hara H; Ezzelarab M; Long C; Klein E; Wagner R
  • Start Page

  • 302
  • End Page

  • 309
  • Volume

  • 22
  • Issue

  • 4