Aqueous extracts of Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Leguminoceae) and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae) were screened for effectiveness in inhibiting mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the Ames test. Antimutagenicity was evaluated using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. In the assay, metabolic activation of AFB1 (0.5 μg/plate) and B[a]P (1 μg/plate) was mediated by rat liver S9 preparation. Although both plants inhibited mutagenicity, E. officinalis had more inhibitory effect than C. occidentalis. Their action is possibly mediated through interactions with microsomal activating enzymes. Their inhibitory action on chromosomal aberrations together with present results suggest that these plants have potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities against mutagens requiring metabolic activation.