The protein transports from the cell cytosol to the mitochondria matrix are carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tim44p is an essential mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein and a major component of TIM23 translocon. Tim44p can tightly associate with the inner mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tim44p functions in the TIM23 translocon to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, we have determined the crystal structure of the yeast Tim44p C-terminal domain to 3.2 Å resolution using the MAD method. The Tim44p C-terminal domain forms a monomer in the crystal structure and contains six α-helices and four antiparallel β-strands. A large hydrophobic pocket was identified on the Tim44p structure surface. The N-terminal helix A1 is positively charged and the helix A1 protrudes out from the Tim44p main body. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.