The initiation and maintenance of reproductive function in mammals is critically dependent on the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This peptide drives the pulsatile release of FSH and LH from the pituitary pars distalis via signaling pathways that are activated by the type I GnRH receptor (GnRH-R). Recently, a microarray analysis study reported that a number of genes, including mPer1, are induced by GnRH in immortalized gonadotrope cells. In view of these data, we have begun to analyze in detail the signaling pathways mediating the action of GnRH on mPer1 expression in these cells. Using quantitative real-time polymprose cho read (PCR), we could confirm that exposure of immortalized gonadotropes (LbetaT2 cells) to the GnRH analog, buserelin, markedly induces mPer1 (but not mPer2) expression. Consistent with GnRH receptor signaling via the protein kinase (PK)-C pathway, exposure of the cells to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate rapidly elevates both mPer1 and LHbeta subunit mRNA levels, while pharmacological inhibition of PKC prevents the mPer1 and LHbeta response to buserelin. As GnRH is known to regulate gonadotropin synthesis via activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, we then examined the involvement of this pathway in regulating mPer1 expression in gonadotropes. Our data reveal that GnRH-induced mPer1 expression is blocked following acute exposure to a MAPK kinase inhibitor. Although the involvement of this signaling mechanism in the regulation of mPer1 is known in neurons, e.g., in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the induction of mPer1 in gonadotropes represents a novel mechanism of GnRH signaling, whose functional significance is still under investigation.