Clinical orofacial examination in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: International consensus-based recommendations for monitoring patients in clinical practice and research studies

Academic Article


  • Objective. To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. Methods. Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains and items to be included in the recommendations. Phase 3: A systematic literature review was performed to assess the evidence supporting the consensus-based recommendations. Phase 4: An independent group of orofacial and JIA experts were invited to assess the content validity of the task force's recommendations. Results. Five recommendations were developed to assess the following 5 domains: medical history, orofacial symptoms, muscle and temporomandibular joint function, orofacial function, and dentofacial growth. After application of data search criteria, 56 articles were included in the systematic review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. Conclusion. Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized data collection for future studies. The task force has formulated a future research program based on the proposed recommendations.
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    Author List

  • Stoustrup P; Twilt M; Spiegel L; Kristensen KD; Koos B; Pedersen TK; K├╝seler A; Cron RQ; Abramowicz S; Verna C
  • Start Page

  • 326
  • End Page

  • 333
  • Volume

  • 44
  • Issue

  • 3