© 2017 American College of Surgeons Background Surgical wound classification, introduced in 1964, stratifies the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) based on a clinical estimate of the inoculum of bacteria encountered during the procedure. Recent literature has questioned the accuracy of predicting SSI risk based on wound classification. We hypothesized that a more specific model founded on specific patient and perioperative factors would more accurately predict the risk of SSI. Study Design Using all observations from the 2012 to 2014 pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) Participant Use File, patients were randomized into model creation and model validation datasets. Potential perioperative predictive factors were assessed with univariate analysis for each of 4 outcomes: wound dehiscence, superficial wound infection, deep wound infection, and organ space infection. A multiple logistic regression model with a step-wise backwards elimination was performed. A receiver operating characteristic curve with c-statistic was generated to assess the model discrimination for each outcome. Results A total of 183,233 patients were included. All perioperative NSQIP factors were evaluated for clinical pertinence. Of the original 43 perioperative predictive factors selected, 6 to 9 predictors for each outcome were significantly associated with postoperative SSI. The predictive accuracy level of our model compared favorably with the traditional wound classification in each outcome of interest. Conclusions The proposed model from NSQIP-P demonstrated a significantly improved predictive ability for postoperative SSIs than the current wound classification system. This model will allow providers to more effectively counsel families and patients of these risks, and more accurately reflect true risks for individual surgical patients to hospitals and payers.