The draft sequence of several complete protozoan genomes is now available and genome projects are ongoing for a number of other species. Different strategies are being implemented to identify and annotate protein coding and RNA genes in these genomes, as well as study their genomic architecture. Since the genomes vary greatly in size, GC-content, nucleotide composition, and degree of repetitiveness, genome structure is often a factor in choosing the methodology utilised for annotation. In addition, the approach taken is dictated, to a greater or lesser extent, by the particular reasons for carrying out genome-wide analyses and the level of funding available for projects. Nevertheless, these projects have provided a plethora of material that will aid in understanding the biology and evolution of these parasites, as well as identifying new targets that can be used to design urgently required drug treatments for the diseases they cause. © 2005 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.