Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among women in the United States. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness increase with advancing age and are early predictors of future CVD outcomes. We designed the Modulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Elders (MOXIE) study to examine the effects of 100% watermelon juice as a “food-first” intervention to reduce CVD risk among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women aged 55–69 years. Vascular dysfunction is more pronounced in AA compared to EA women due in part to lower nitric oxide bioavailability caused by higher oxidative stress. However, bioactive compounds in watermelon may improve vascular function by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. This trial will use a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design to investigate the potential of 100% watermelon juice to positively impact various robust measures of vascular function as well as serum biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. This nutrition intervention and its unique methodology to examine both clinical and mechanistic outcomes are described in this article.