The PV subfamily of Alu repeats in human DNA is largely composed of recently inserted members. Here we document additional members of the PV subfamily that are found in chimpanzee but not in the orthologous loci of human and gorilla, confirming the relatively recent and independent expansion of this Alu subfamily in the chimpanzee lineage. As further evidence for the youth of this Alu subfamily, one PV Alu repeat is specific to Pan troglodytes, whereas others are present in Pan paniscus as well. The A-rich tails of these Alu repeats have different lengths in Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes. The dimorphisms caused by the presence and absence of PV Alu repeats and the length polymorphisms attributed to their A-rich tails should provide valuable genetic markers for molecular-based studies of chimpanzee relationships. The existence of lineage-specific Alu repeats is a major sequence difference between human and chimpanzee DNAs. © 1993, Springer-Verlag New York Inc. All rights reserved.