Protein X, recently renamed dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein (E3BP), is required for anchoring dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) to the dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2) core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes of eukaryotes. DNA and deduced protein sequences for E3BP of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex are reported here. With the exception of only a single lipoyl domain, the protein has a segmented multi- domain structure analogous to that of the E2 component of the complex. The protein has 46% amino acid sequence identity in its amino-terminal region with the second lipoyl domain of E2, 38% identity in its central region with the putative peripheral subunit-binding domain of E2, and 50% identity in its carboxyl-terminal region with the catalytic inner core domain of E2. The similarity in the latter domain stands in contrast to E3BP of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is quite different from its homologous transacetylase in this region. The putative catalytic site histidine residue present in the inner core domains of all dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases is replaced by a serine residue in human E3BP; thus, catalysis of coenzyme A acetylation by this protein is unlikely. Coexpression of cDNAs for E3BP and E2 resulted in the formation of an E2·E3BP subcomplex that spontaneously reconstituted the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the presence of native E3 and recombinant pyruvate decarboxylase (E1).