Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the late toxicity and efficacy of twice-daily external irradiation to the pelvis and lumbar para-aortic region with brachytherapy and concurrent chemotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix with positive para-aortic lymph nodes. Patients and Methods: This study was designed to administer twice-daily radiation doses of 1.2 Gy to the pelvis and lumbar para-aortic lymph nodes (simultaneously) at 4-6-h intervals, 5 days per week. The total external radiation doses were 24-48 Gy to the whole pelvis, 12-36 Gy parametrial boost, and 48 Gy to the lumbar para-aortic region with an additional boost to a total dose 54-58 Gy to the positive para-aortic lymph node(s). One or two intracavitary implants were performed to deliver a minimum total dose of 85 Gy to point A. Cisplatin (75 mg/m2; Days 1, 22, and 43) and 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2/24 h × 4 consecutive days, beginning on Days 1, 22, and 43) were given for two or three cycles.Results: Thirty patients with clinical Stages I-IV carcinoma of the cervix with biopsy-proven para-aortic lymph node metastases were enrolled in this study. Hyperfractionated external irradiation was completed in 87% (26 of 30). Brachytherapy was given in two implants to 47% (14 of 30) and in one implant to 33% (10 of 30); 13% (4 of 30) did not receive brachytherapy, 1 patient had three implants, and 1 had five high-dose-rate implants. Radiotherapy was completed per protocol in 70%. Three cycles of chemotherapy were given to 23% (7 of 30); 73% (22 of 30) received two cycles, and 1 patient did not receive chemotherapy. The acute toxicity from chemotherapy was Grade 1 in 3%, Grade 2 in 17%, Grade 3 in 48%, and Grade 4 in 28%. Acute toxicity from radiotherapy was Grade 1 in 7%, Grade 2 in 34%, Grade 3 in 21%, and Grade 4 in 28%. Late toxicity was Grade 1 in 10%, Grade 2 in 17%, Grade 3 in 7%, and Grade 4 in 17%. Grade 5 toxicity occurred in 1 patient during the course of therapy, but none had a late Grade 5 toxicity. The median follow-up time for the 7 patients alive at the time of last follow-up was 57 months. The overall survival estimates were 46% at 2 years and 29% at 4 years. The probability of local-regional failure was 40% at 1 year and 50% at 2 and 3 years. The probability of disease failure at any site was 46% at 1 year, 60% at 2 years, and 63% at 3 years.Conclusion: The results suggest that twice-daily external irradiation to the pelvis and lumbar para-aortic region with brachytherapy and concurrent chemotherapy resulted in an unacceptably high rate (17%, 5 of 29) of Grade 4 late toxicity. One patient died of acute complications of therapy. The survival estimates seem no better than standard fractionation irradiation without chemotherapy. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.