Immune responses to β-hemolytic streptococcal infections are hypothesized to trigger tic disorders and early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in some pediatric populations. Here we identify the M1 isoform of the glycolytic enzyme, pyruvate kinase (PK) as an autoimmune target in Tourette syndrome and associated disorders. Antibodies to PK reacted strongly with surface antigens of infectious strains of streptococcus, and antibodies to streptococcal M proteins reacted with PK. Moreover, immunoreactivity to PK in patients with exacerbated symptoms who had recently acquired a streptococcal infection was 7-fold higher compared to patients with exacerbated symptoms and no evidence of a streptococcal infection. These data suggest that PK can function as an autoimmune target and that this immunoreactivity may be associated with Tourette syndrome, OCD, and associated disorders. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.