Bone marrow transplant recipients undergo ablation of host immune defenses with total-body irradiation or high dose chemotherapy, or both. Over a 5.6-year period, mycobacterial infections were observed in 7 of 682 patients with leukemia who received marrow grafts. Four patients had pulmonary and three extrapulmonary infection. Granulomas were observed in the lungs of three patients, in the liver of one patient, and in the skin of one patient. Cultures revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in two patients, Mycobacterium fortuitum in two patients, and Mycobacterium kansasii in one patient. In the six patients treated with antimycobacterial therapy in either the pretransplant or posttransplant period, complete resolution of the infection was achieved. Pretransplant chest radiograph abnormalities suggesting mycobacterial infections should be aggressively evaluated in these immunocompromised hosts. Prophylaxis should be considered in marrow graft recipients with a well-established history of inadequately treated tuberculosis, previous Bacille Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy, known family contacts, recent skin test conversion, or past skin test positivity. © 1983 by The Williams and Wilkins Co.