• Moon H. Nahm, Professor of Department of Medicine, with secondary appointment in Microbiology, obtained both his BA degree (in 1970) and MD degree (in 1974) from Washington University in St. Louis MO. In 1980, he completed both Internal Medicine and Laboratory Medicine residency training in Pathology Department, as well as completing post-doctoral research training in Microbiology Department at Washington University in St. Louis MO. He was a faculty member at Washington University in St. Louis and University of Rochester before he joined UAB. He was the director of the Clinical Immunology Laboratory for UAB hospitals.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2022 Potentiating pneumococcal glycoconjugate vaccine PCV13 with saponin adjuvant VSA-1Frontiers in Immunology.  13. 2022
    2022 Investigation on the virulence of non-encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae using liquid agar pneumonia modelJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy.  28:1452-1458. 2022
    2022 Effect of Oral Streptococci Expressing Pneumococcus-like Cross-Reactive Capsule Types on World Health Organization Recommended Pneumococcal Carriage Detection ProcedureClinical Infectious Diseases.  75:647-656. 2022
    2022 Ficolin-2 Lectin Complement Pathway Mediates Capsule-Specific Innate Immunity Against Invasive Pneumococcal DiseaseFrontiers in Immunology.  13. 2022
    2022 A Novel Pneumococcal Surface Protein K of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Promotes Transmission among Littermates in an Infant Mouse Model with Influenza A Virus CoinfectionInfection and Immunity.  90. 2022
    2022 Anatomical Site-Specific Carbohydrate Availability Impacts Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence and Fitness during Colonization and DiseaseInfection and Immunity.  90. 2022
    2021 Correction to: Classical and lectin complement pathways and markers of inflammation for investigation of susceptibility to infections among healthy older adults (Immunity & Ageing, (2020), 17, 1, (18), 10.1186/s12979-020-00189-7)Immunity and Ageing.  18. 2021
    2021 Pneumococcal Antibody Function for Immunologic Evaluation: Normal Results in Older Adults, and a Novel Analytical Model for Vaccine ResponseJournal of Clinical Immunology.  41:1964-1968. 2021
    2021 Capsule Promotes Intracellular Survival and Vascular Endothelial Cell Translocation during Invasive Pneumococcal DiseasemBio.  12. 2021
    2021 Structural, Genetic, and Serological Elucidation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serogroup 24 Serotypes: Discovery of a New Serotype, 24C, with a Variable Capsule StructureJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  59:e0054021. 2021
    2021 Carbon source-dependent changes of the structure of streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide with serotype 6fInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences.  22. 2021
    2021 Erratum for: Pneumococcal capsules and their types: Past, present, and future (Clin Microbiol Rev, (2015) 28, 3, (871–899), 10.1128/CMR.00024-15)Clinical Microbiology Reviews.  34:1. 2021
    2020 Assignment of opsonic values to pneumococcal reference serum 007sp and a second pneumococcal OPA calibration serum panel (Ewha QC sera panel B) for 11 serotypesVaccine.  38:8145-8153. 2020
    2020 Phosphorylcholine esterase is critical for Dolichos biflorus and Helix pomatia agglutinin binding to pneumococcal teichoic acid 2020
    2020 Pneumococci can become virulent by acquiring a new capsule from oral streptococciJournal of Infectious Diseases.  222:372-380. 2020
    2020 Classical and lectin complement pathways and markers of inflammation for investigation of susceptibility to infections among healthy older adultsImmunity and Ageing.  17. 2020
    2020 Classical and lectin complement pathways and markers of inflammation for investigation of susceptibility to infections among healthy older adults.Immunity and Ageing.  17:18. 2020
    2020 Erratum: "A Common Food Glycan, Pectin, Shares an Antigen with Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule" [mSphere, 5, 2, (2020), (e00074-20)] DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00074-20Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  5. 2020
    2020 Peripheral CD4 T follicular cells induced by a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine correlate with enhanced opsonophagocytic antibody responses in younger individualsVaccine.  38:1778-1786. 2020
    2020 A Common Food Glycan, Pectin, Shares an Antigen with Streptococcus pneumoniae CapsuleClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  5. 2020
    2020 A new pneumococcal capsule type, 10D, is the 100th serotype and has a large cps fragment from an oral streptococcusmBio.  11. 2020
    2019 Development for Clinical Use of a Multiplexed Immunoassay Using Sputum Samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae: A non-culture-based approach for serotype-specific detectionJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  57. 2019
    2019 Molecular typing, antibiotic susceptibility, and biofilm production in nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in JapanJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy.  25:750-757. 2019
    2019 Putative novel cps loci in a large global collection of pneumococciMicrobial Genomics.  5. 2019
    2019 Serocorrelates of protection against infant group B streptococcus diseaseLancet Infectious Diseases.  19:e162-e171. 2019
    2019 Interlaboratory variability in multiplexed pneumococcal antibody testingJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  143:1255-1257. 2019
    2019 A High-throughput Shigella-specific Bactericidal AssayJournal of Visualized Experiments2019
    2018 Ficolin-2 binds to serotype 35B pneumococcus as it does to serotypes 11A and 31, and these serotypes cause more infections in older adults than in childrenPLoS One.  13. 2018
    2018 Measuring quantity and function of pneumococcal antibodies in immunoglobulin productsTransfusion.  58:3114-3120. 2018
    2018 Measuring immune responses to pneumococcal vaccinesImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  461:37-43. 2018
    2018 Effect of prior vaccination on carriage rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in older adults: A longitudinal surveillance studyVaccine.  36:4304-4310. 2018
    2018 Development, interlaboratory evaluations, and application of a simple, high-throughput Shigella serum bactericidal assayClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  3. 2018
    2018 Creation, characterization, and assignment of opsonic values for a new pneumococcal OPA calibration serum panel (Ewha QC sera panel A) for 13 serotypesMedicine.  97. 2018
    2018 Randomized clinical trial of a single versus a double dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in adults 55 through 74 years of age previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccineVaccine.  36:606-614. 2018
    2017 WciG O-acetyltransferase functionality differentiates pneumococcal serotypes 35C and 42Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  55:2775-2784. 2017
    2017 The pneumococcal serotype 15C capsule is partially O-acetylated and allows for limited evasion of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-elicited anti-serotype 15B antibodiesClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  24. 2017
    2017 Position of O-acetylation within the capsular repeat unit impacts the biological properties of pneumococcal serotypes 33A and 33FInfection and Immunity.  85. 2017
    2017 Discovery of novel pneumococcal serotype 35D, a natural WciG-deficient variant of serotype 35BJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  55:1416-1425. 2017
    2017 Assignment of opsonic values to pneumococcal reference serum 007sp for use in opsonophagocytic assays for 13 serotypesClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  24. 2017
    2016 A high throughput serum bactericidal assay for antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type bBMC Infectious Diseases.  16. 2016
    2016 Monoclonal antibodies to Shigella lipopolysaccharide are useful for vaccine productionClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  23:681-688. 2016
    2016 CLEC4C p.K210del variant causes impaired cell surface transport in plasmacytoid dendritic cells of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Oncotarget.  7:24942-24949. 2016
    2016 Pneumococcus with the "6E" CPS locus produces serotype 6B capsular polysaccharideJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  54:967-971. 2016
    2016 Molecular epidemiology of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae among Japanese children with acute otitis mediaJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy.  22:72-77. 2016
    2016 Directly converted patient-specific induced neurons mirror the neuropathology of FUS with disrupted nuclear localization in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Molecular Neurodegeneration.  11:8. 2016
    2016 Ficolin-2 inhibitors are present in sera after prolonged storage at -80 °CPeerJ.  2016. 2016
    2016 Indirect effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in national immunization programs for children on adult pneumococcal disease 2016
    2016 NOD-like receptors in infection, immunity, and diseasesYonsei Medical Journal.  57:5-14. 2016
    2015 Erratum: Discovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6 variants with glycosyltransferases synthesizing two differing repeating units (The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2013) 288 (25976-25985))Journal of Biological Chemistry.  290:26474-26475. 2015
    2015 Rapid and efficient purification of ficolin-2 using a disposable CELLine bioreactorImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  424:106-110. 2015
    2015 Genetic, biochemical, and serological characterization of a new pneumococcal serotype, 6H, and generation of a pneumococcal strain producing three different capsular repeat unitsClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  22:313-318. 2015
    2015 Pneumococcal capsules and their types: Past, present, and futureClinical Microbiology Reviews.  28:871-899. 2015
    2014 Low invasiveness of pneumococcal serotype 11A is linked to ficolin-2 recognition of O-acetylated capsule epitopes and lectin complement pathway activationJournal of Infectious Diseases.  210:1155-1165. 2014
    2014 Commercially available complement component-depleted sera are unexpectedly codepleted of ficolin-2Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  21:1323-1329. 2014
    2014 Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae cause acute otitis media in the chinchilla that is enhanced by pneumococcal surface protein KOpen Forum Infectious Diseases.  1. 2014
    2014 Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11E, serovariant 11Av and mixed populations by High- Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy and Flow Cytometric Serotyping Assay (FCSA)PLoS One.  9. 2014
    2014 Population-based analysis of invasive nontypeable pneumococci reveals that most have defective capsule synthesis genesPLoS One.  9. 2014
    2014 Impaired serotype-specific immune function following pneumococcal vaccination in infants with prior carriageVaccine.  32:2321-2327. 2014
    2014 Impact of preceding flu-like illness on the serotype distribution of pneumococcal pneumoniaPLoS One.  9. 2014
    2014 Towards new broader spectrum pneumococcal vaccines: The future of Pneumococcal disease preventionVaccines.  2:112-128. 2014
    2014 Correction: L-Rhamnose is often an important part of immunodominant epitope for pneumococcal serotype 23F polysaccharide antibodies in human sera immunized with PPV23 (PLoS ONE)PLoS One.  9. 2014
    2014 Blood collection tubes influence serum ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 levelsClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  21:51-55. 2014
    2014 Spectrum of pneumococcal serotype 11A variants results from incomplete loss of capsule O-acetylationJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  52:758-765. 2014
    2013 L-rhamnose is often an important part of immunodominant epitope for pneumococcal serotype 23F polysaccharide antibodies in human sera immunized with PPV23PLoS One.  8. 2013
    2013 Diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia: Current pitfalls and the way forward 2013
    2013 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C presenting as recurrent prosthetic knee joint infection in a patient with a history of congenital asplenia and underlying autoimmune disease: A case report and literature reviewDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.  77:376-379. 2013
    2013 Invasive and Noninvasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule and Surface Protein Diversity following the Use of a Conjugate VaccineClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  20:1711-1718. 2013
    2013 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsulesJournal of Bacteriology.  195:4552. 2013
    2013 The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits cross-functional opsonophagocytic killing responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D in childrenBMC Infectious Diseases.  13. 2013
    2013 Modified opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing assays to measure potentially protective antibodies against pneumococcal surface protein AClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  20:1549-1558. 2013
    2013 Discovery of streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6 variants with glycosyltransferases synthesizing two differing repeating unitsJournal of Biological Chemistry.  288:25976-25985. 2013
    2013 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11D has a bispecific glycosyltransferase and expresses two different capsular polysaccharide repeating unitsJournal of Biological Chemistry.  288:21945-21954. 2013
    2013 Clinical implications of pneumococcal serotypes: Invasive disease potential, clinical presentations, and antibiotic resistanceJournal of Korean Medical Science.  28:4-15. 2013
    2013 Low opsonic activity to the infecting serotype in pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal diseaseVaccine.  31:845-849. 2013
    2013 Draft genome sequences of five multilocus sequence types of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniaeMicrobiology Resource Announcements.  1. 2013
    2013 Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibodyJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy.  19:412-425. 2013
    2013 PspK of Streptococcus pneumoniae increases adherence to epithelial cells and enhances nasopharyngeal colonizationInfection and Immunity.  81:173-181. 2013
    2012 Novel pneumococcal serotypes 6C and 6D: Anomaly or harbingerClinical Infectious Diseases.  55:1379-1386. 2012
    2012 Device for carrying blood samples at 37°C for cryoglobulin testClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  19:1555-1556. 2012
    2012 Impaired function of antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A but Not to capsular polysaccharide in Mexican American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitusClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  19:1360-1369. 2012
    2012 Long-term comparative immunogenicity of protein conjugate and free polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseClinical Infectious Diseases.  55. 2012
    2012 Biochemical, genetic, and serological characterization of two capsule subtypes among Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 20 strains: Discovery of a new pneumococcal serotypeJournal of Biological Chemistry.  287:27885-27894. 2012
    2012 From quellung to multiplex PCR, and back when needed, in pneumococcal serotypingJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  50:2727-2731. 2012
    2012 Development of a fourfold multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay for pneumococcal antibodies against additional serotypes and discovery of serological subtypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 20Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  19:835-841. 2012
    2012 PspA family distribution, unlike capsular serotype, remains unaltered following introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccineClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  19:891-896. 2012
    2012 Structural characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9A capsule polysaccharide reveals role of glycosyl 6-O-acetyltransferase wcjE in serotype 9V capsule biosynthesis and immunogenicityJournal of Biological Chemistry.  287:13996-14003. 2012
    2012 Differential occurrence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11E between asymptomatic carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease isolates reflects a unique model of pathogen microevolutionClinical Infectious Diseases.  54:794-799. 2012
    2012 Issues and challenges in the development of pneumococcal protein vaccinesExpert Review of Vaccines.  11:279-285. 2012
    2012 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsulesJournal of Bacteriology.  194:206. 2012
    2012 Immune responses to pneumococcal vaccines in children and adults: Rationale for age-specific vaccinationAging and Disease.  3:51-67. 2012
    2012 Nontypeable pneumococci can be divided into multiple cps types, including one type expressing the novel gene pspKmBio.  3. 2012
    2012 Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age produces functional immune responsesJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  129. 2012
    2011 The structure of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotype 11A reveals a novel acetylglycerol that is the structural basis for 11A subtypes (The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009) 284 (7318-7329))Journal of Biological Chemistry.  286:43588. 2011
    2011 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9A isolates contain diverse mutations to wcjE that result in variable expression of serotype 9v-specific epitopeJournal of Infectious Diseases.  204:1585-1595. 2011
    2011 Active immunization with pneumolysin versus 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae keratitis 2011
    2011 Development of an automated and multiplexed serotyping assay for Streptococcus pneumoniaeClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  18:1900-1907. 2011
    2011 Comparative structural and molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide serogroup 10Journal of Biological Chemistry.  286:35813-35822. 2011
    2011 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsulesJournal of Bacteriology.  193:5271-5278. 2011
    2011 Establishment of a new human pneumococcal standard reference serum, 007spClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  18:1728-1736. 2011
    2011 The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) elicits cross-functional opsonophagocytic killing responses in humans to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 7AVaccine.  29:7207-7211. 2011
    2011 Erratum: Identification of a simple chemical structure associated with protective human antibodies against multiple pneumococcal serogroupsInfection and Immunity.  79:3472. 2011
    2011 Type distribution of serogroup 6 Streptococcus pneumoniae and molecular epidemiology of newly identified serotypes 6C and 6D in ChinaDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.  70:291-298. 2011
    2011 Pneumococcal glycoconjugate vaccines produce antibody responses that strongly correlate with functionNature Reviews Drug Discovery.  10:393. 2011
    2011 Structure of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotype 11A reveals a novel acetylglycerol that is the structural basis for 11A subtypes (Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009) 284 (7318-7329))Journal of Biological Chemistry.  286:8707. 2011
    2011 Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage of children attending day care centers in Korea: Comparison between children immunized with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and non-immunizedJournal of Korean Medical Science.  26:184-190. 2011
    2011 Pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumonia with pleural effusion in pediatric patientsJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  49:534-538. 2011
    2011 Opsonophagocytic activity following a reduced dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine infant primary series and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of ageVaccine.  29:535-544. 2011
    2011 A report of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D in EuropeJournal of Medical Microbiology.  60:46-48. 2011
    2011 Evolution of the capsular gene locus of streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 6Microbiology.  157:189-198. 2011
    2011 Multilaboratory comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae opsonophagocytic killing assays and their level of agreement for the determination of functional antibody activity in human reference seraClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  18:135-142. 2011
    2011 Older adults have a low capacity to opsonize pneumococci due to low igm antibody response to pneumococcal vaccinationsInfection and Immunity.  79:314-320. 2011
    2010 Differential circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C clones in two Israeli pediatric populationsJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  48:4649-4651. 2010
    2010 Non-typeable Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage isolates genetically similar to invasive and carriage isolates expressing capsular type 14 in Brazilian infantsJournal of Infection.  61:314-322. 2010
    2010 Influence of asthma status on serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody levelsPostgraduate medicine.  122:116-124. 2010
    2010 Cross-reactivity of current serogroup 6 factor sera from Statens Serum Institut with the recently described pneumococcal serotype 6DJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  48:3044-3045. 2010
    2010 Low-cost, high-throughput, automated counting of bacterial colonies 2010
    2010 A new pneumococcal serotype, 11E, has a variably inactivated wcjE GeneJournal of Infectious Diseases.  202:29-38. 2010
    2010 Changing antibiotic resistance pattern of serogroup 6 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with upper respiratory infection during the period from 1997 to 2007Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy.  10:182-187. 2010
    2010 The burden and characteristics of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) in South Korea: a study from a population database and a survey.BMC Infectious Diseases.  10:66. 2010
    2010 The effect of age on the response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccineBMC Infectious Diseases.  10. 2010
    2010 Identification of a simple chemical structure associated with protective human antibodies against multiple pneumococcal serogroups (Infection and Immunity (2009) 77, 8, (3374-3379))Infection and Immunity.  78:1414. 2010
    2010 Identification of natural pneumococcal isolates expressing serotype 6D by genetic, biochemical and serological characterizationMicrobiology.  156:555-560. 2010
    2010 Survey of nonsusceptible nasopharyngeal streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in children attending day-care centers in Brazil 2010
    2009 Identification of 3-O-acetylglycerol, a novel structural element in bacterial polysaccharidesCarbohydrate Research.  344:2586-2590. 2009
    2009 Synthesis, conjugation, and immunological evaluation of the serogroup 6 pneumococcal oligosaccharides 2009
    2009 Superior immune response to protein-conjugate versus free pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.  180:499-505. 2009
    2009 Identification of a simple chemical structure associated with protective human antibodies against multiple pneumococcal serogroupsInfection and Immunity.  77:3374-3379. 2009
    2009 Lipoprotein lipase and hydrofluoric acid deactivate both bacterial lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acids, but platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase degrades only lipoteichoic acidsClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  16:1187-1195. 2009
    2009 Rarely occurring 19A-like cps locus from a serotype 19F pneumococcal isolate indicates continued need of serology-based quality control for PCR-based serotype determinationsJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  47:2353-2354. 2009
    2009 "Dodgy 6As": Differentiating pneumococcal serotype 6C from 6A by use of the Quellung reactionJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  47:1981-1982. 2009
    2009 Production of a unique pneumococcal capsule serotype belonging to serogroup 6Microbiology.  155:576-583. 2009
    2009 Structure of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotype 11A reveals a novel acetylglycerol that is the structural basis for 11A subtypesJournal of Biological Chemistry.  284:7318-7329. 2009
    2009 Immune response in infants to the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-related serotypes 6A and 19AClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  16:376-381. 2009
    2009 PCR-based quantitation and clonal diversity of the current prevalent invasive serogroup 6 pneumococcal serotype, 6C, in the United States in 1999 and 2006 to 2007Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  47:554-559. 2009
    2009 Increase in the prevalence of the newly discovered pneumococcal serotype 6C in the nasopharynx after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccineJournal of Infectious Diseases.  199:320-325. 2009
    2009 Antibody to the type 3 capsule facilitates immune adherence of pneumococci to erythrocytes and augments their transfer to macrophagesInfection and Immunity.  77:464-471. 2009
    2008 Differential effects of pneumococcal vaccines against serotypes 6A and 6CJournal of Infectious Diseases.  198:1818-1822. 2008
    2008 Pneumococcal vaccination in older adults induces antibodies with low opsonic capacity and reduced antibody potencyVaccine.  26:5521-5526. 2008
    2008 Initial and subsequent response to pneumococcal polysaccharide and protein-conjugate vaccines administered sequentially to adults who have recovered from pneumococcal pneumoniaJournal of Infectious Diseases.  198:1019-1027. 2008
    2008 A new model of pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid structure resolves biochemical, biosynthetic, and serologic inconsistencies of the current modelJournal of Bacteriology.  190:2379-2387. 2008
    2008 A four-parameter logistic model for estimating titers of functional multiplexed pneumococcal opsonophagocytic killing assayJournal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics.  18:307-325. 2008
    2008 A rapid pneumococcal serotyping system based on monoclonal antibodies and PCRJournal of Medical Microbiology.  57:171-178. 2008
    2008 Low prevalence of recently discovered pneumococcal serotype 6C isolates among healthy Dutch children in the pre-vaccination eraVaccine.  26:449-450. 2008
    2008 Lipoteichoic acid is important in innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteriaInfection and Immunity.  76:206-213. 2008
    2008 Pneumococcal vaccination for patients with COPD: Current practice and future directionsChest.  133:767-774. 2008
    2008 Revaccination of adults with spinal cord injury using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccineJournal of Spinal Cord Medicine.  31:53-59. 2008
    2007 Genetic basis for the new pneumococcal serotype, 6CInfection and Immunity.  75:4482-4489. 2007
    2007 Guidelines for assessing immunocompetency in clinical trials for autoimmune diseasesClinical Immunology.  123:235-243. 2007
    2007 Immunogenicity of varying dosages of 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine in seniors previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccineVaccine.  25:4029-4037. 2007
    2007 Discovery of a new capsular serotype (6C) within serogroup 6 of Streptococcus pneumoniaeJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  45:1225-1233. 2007
    2006 Development and validation of a fourfold multiplexed opsonization assay (MOPA4) for pneumococcal antibodiesClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  13:1004-1009. 2006
    2006 Platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase can monodeacylate and inactivate lipoteichoic acidClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  13:452-458. 2006
    2006 Erratum: Lipoteichoic acid-induced nitric oxide production depends on the activation of platelet-activating factor receptor and Jak2 (Journal of Immunology (2006) 176 (573-579))Journal of Immunology.  176:2671. 2006
    2006 Use of opsonophagocytosis for serological evaluation of pneumococcal vaccinesClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  13:165-169. 2006
    2006 Validation of a multiplex pneumococcal serotyping assay with clinical samplesJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  44:383-388. 2006
    2006 Lipoteichoic acid-induced nitric oxide production depends on the activation of platelet-activating factor receptor and Jak2Journal of Immunology.  176:573-579. 2006
    2005 Anti-idiotypic antibody as a potential candidate vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup BInfection and Immunity.  73:6399-6406. 2005
    2005 Simplified method to automatically count bacterial colony forming unitImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  302:99-102. 2005
    2005 Safety of varying dosages of 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine in seniors previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccineVaccine.  23:3697-3703. 2005
    2005 Monoacyl lipoteichoic acid from pneumococci stimulates human cells but not mouse cellsInfection and Immunity.  73:834-840. 2005
    2005 Rapid multiplex assay for serotyping pneumococci with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodiesJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  43:156-162. 2005
    2005 Use of HL-60 cell line to measure opsonic capacity of pneumococcal antibodiesClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  12:19-27. 2005
    2004 A new murine model of humoral immunodeficiency specifically affects class switching to T-independent antigensEuropean Journal of Immunology.  34:1807-1816. 2004
    2004 Development of experimental carbohydrate-conjugate vaccines composed of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides and the universal helper T-lymphocyte epitope (PADRE®)Vaccine.  22:2362-2367. 2004
    2003 Multilaboratory Evaluation of a Viability Assay for Measurement of Opsonophagocytic Antibodies Specific to the Capsular Polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniaeClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  10:1019-1024. 2003
    2003 Pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is not as potent as staphylococcal LTA in stimulating Toll-like receptor 2Infection and Immunity.  71:5541-5548. 2003
    2003 Efficiency of a pneumococcal opsonophagocytic killing assay improved by multiplexing and by coloring coloniesClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  10:616-621. 2003
    2003 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of human antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharidesClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  10:514-519. 2003
    2003 Central role of complement in passive protection by human IgG1 and IgG2 anti-pneumococcal antibodies in miceJournal of Immunology.  170:6158-6164. 2003
    2003 Genetic relatedness of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from North AmericaJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  41:2458-2464. 2003
    2003 Immunogenic protein contaminants in pneumococcal vaccinesJournal of Infectious Diseases.  187:1019-1023. 2003
    2003 Peptide mimotopes as prototypic templates of broad-spectrum surrogates of carbohydrate antigens.Cellular and Molecular Biology.  49:245-254. 2003
    2002 Peptide mimotopes of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide of 6B serotype: A peptide mimotope can bind to two unrelated antibodiesJournal of Immunology.  168:6273-6278. 2002
    2002 Type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide induces antibodies that cross-react with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14Infection and Immunity.  70:1724-1738. 2002
    2001 Chromogenic assay measuring opsonophagocytic killing capacities of antipneumococcal antiseraClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  8:528-533. 2001
    2001 Monoclonal antibodies specific for Neisseria meningitidis group B polysaccharide and their peptide mimotopesInfection and Immunity.  69:3335-3342. 2001
    2001 Comparison of a classical phagocytosis assay and a flow cytometry assay for assessment of the phagocytic capacity of sera from adults vaccinated with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccineClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  8:245-250. 2001
    2001 Avidity, potency, and cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotype 6BInfection and Immunity.  69:336-344. 2001
    2001 Flavopiridol induces apoptosis and caspase-3 activation of a newly characterized Burkitt's lymphoma cell line containing mutant p53 genesBlood Cells, Molecules and Diseases.  27:610-624. 2001
    2000 Development of a multi-specificity opsonophagocytic killing assayVaccine.  18:2768-2771. 2000
    2000 A latex bead-based flow cytometric immunoassay capable of simultaneous typing of multiple pneumococcal serotypes (multibead assay)Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  7:486-489. 2000
    2000 Towards a synthetic pneumococcal vaccine: Synthetic oligosaccharides as tools for improving the specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [1] (multiple letters)Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  7:325. 2000
    2000 Acquired, but not innate, immune responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae are compromised by neutralization of CD40LInfection and Immunity.  68:511-517. 2000
    2000 Ablation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (p55) alters oxygen- induced lung injury 2000
    2000 An analytical model applied to a multicenter pneumococcal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studyJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  38:2043-2050. 2000
    2000 Immunization of humans with recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A (rPspA) elicits antibodies that passively protect mice from fatal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae bearing heterologous PspAJournal of Infectious Diseases.  182:1694-1701. 2000
    2000 Pathway analysis in metabolic databases via differential metabolic display (DMD)Bioinformatics.  16:825-836. 2000
    2000 Peptide mimic of phosphorylcholine, a dominant epitope found on Streptococcus pneumoniaeInfection and Immunity.  68:5778-5784. 2000
    1999 Immunity to cross-reactive serotypes induced by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infantsJournal of Infectious Diseases.  180:1569-1576. 1999
    1999 Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide preparations may contain non-C- polysaccharide contaminants that are immunogenicClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  6:519-524. 1999
    1999 Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6BInfection and Immunity.  67:1172-1179. 1999
    1999 Tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor I is important for survival from Streptococcus pneumoniae infectionsInfection and Immunity.  67:595-601. 1999
    1997 Distinct roles of lymphotoxin α and the type i tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor in the establishment of follicular dendritic cells from non- bone marrow-derived cellsJournal of Experimental Medicine.  186:1997-2004. 1997
    1997 Sequence diversity of VL kappa regions in korean adults and children immunized with a haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine 1997
    1997 Fas and Fas Ligand Enhance the Pathogenesis of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis, but Are Not Essential for Immune Privilege in the Central Nervous SystemJournal of Immunology.  159:3096-3099. 1997
    1997 Identification of cross-reactive antibodies with low opsonophagocytic activity for Streptococcus pneumoniaeJournal of Infectious Diseases.  176:698-703. 1997
    1997 Intranasal immunization of mice with PspA (Pneumococcal surface protein A) can prevent lntranasal carriage, pulmonary infection, and sepsis with Streptococcus pneumoniaeJournal of Infectious Diseases.  175:839-846. 1997
    1996 Affinity maturation in the absence of germinal centers in lymphotoxin-α deficient mice 1996
    1996 Association of placental transfer of anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antibodies with their V regionsVaccine.  14:1219-1222. 1996
    1996 Affinity maturation without germinal centres in lymphotoxin-α- deficient miceNature.  382:462-466. 1996
    1996 Role of lymphotoxin and the type I TNF receptor in the formation of germinal centersScience.  271:1289-1291. 1996
    1996 A modified Farr assay is more specific than ELISA for measuring antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharidesJournal of Infectious Diseases.  173:113-118. 1996
    1996 The repertoire of human antibodies to the carbohydrate capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae 6BJournal of Infectious Diseases.  174:75-82. 1996
    1995 Absence of lymph nodes in lymphotoxin-α(LTα)-deficient mice is due to abnormal organ development, not defective lymphocyte migrationJournal of inflammation.  45:72-78. 1995
    1995 Functional capacities of clonal antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharideInfection and Immunity.  63:2989-2994. 1995
    1995 Germinal center T cells exhibit properties of memory helper T cellsCellular Immunology.  163:206-214. 1995
    1995 Singleton vs duplicate prostate-specific antigen measurements 1995
    1995 The V-region repertoire of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antibodies induced by immunization of infantsInfection and Immunity.  63:4219-4223. 1995
    1994 Comparison of nonhuman primate antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide with human antibodies in oligoclonality and in vivo protective potencyInfection and Immunity.  62:2426-2431. 1994
    1994 Endogenous serum antibodies that interfere with a common thyroid hormone uptake assay: Characterization and prevalence 1994
    1994 Properties of human follicular dendritic cells purified with HJ2, a new monoclonal antibodyCellular Immunology.  155:27-41. 1994
    1993 Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide: V. In vivo expression of individual antibody clones is dependent on Ig C(H) haplotypes and the categories of antigenJournal of Immunology.  151:4352-4361. 1993
    1993 Comparison of naturally acquired and vaccine-induced antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type B capsular polysaccharideInfection and Immunity.  61:5345-5350. 1993
    1993 Cost-effective method for detection of 'hook effect' in tumor marker immunometric assays [4] 1993
    1993 Cytokine expression by germinal center cellsJournal of Immunology.  150:39-47. 1993
    1993 Endogenous antibodies that interfere with thyroxine fluorescence polarization assay but not with radioimmunoassay or EMIT(TM) 1993
    1993 T cells within germinal centers are specific for the immunizing antigenJournal of Immunology.  151:4505-4512. 1993
    1992 Functional properties of human germinal center B cellsCellular Immunology.  140:331-344. 1992
    1992 Characterization of the Human IgG Antibody VLRepertoire to Haemophilus influenzae Type b PolysaccharideJournal of Infectious Diseases.  165:S53-S56. 1992
    1992 Standardization of glycohemoglobin determinations in the clinical laboratory: Three years of experience 1992
    1992 The evolution of immune memory and germinal centersTrends in Immunology.  13:438-441. 1992
    1992 The human antibody v region repertoire to the type b capsular polysaccharide of haemophilus influenzaeInternational Reviews of Immunology.  9:45-55. 1992
    1991 An idiotypic marker associated with a germ-line encoded κ light chain variable region that predominates the vaccine-induced human antibody response to the Haemophilus influenzae b polysaccharideJournal of Clinical Investigation.  88:1811-1818. 1991
    1991 BCL2 protein is topographically restricted in tissues characterized by apoptotic cell death 1991
    1991 Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide: IV. The less frequently expressed VL are heterogenousJournal of Immunology.  147:4007-4013. 1991
    1991 Cytokine production by T helper cell subpopulations during prolonged in vitro stimulationImmunology Letters.  27:85-93. 1991
    1991 Germinal center T cells are distinct helper-inducer T cellsHuman Immunology.  31:67-75. 1991
    1991 Human rib bone marrow mononuclear cells spontaneously synthesize and secrete IgE in vitroClinical and Experimental Immunology.  83:163-168. 1991
    1991 Subpopulations of B cells in germinal centers. III. HJ6, a monoclonal antibody, binds globoside and a subpopulation of germinal center B cellsJournal of Immunology.  147:823-829. 1991
    1990 Induction of IL-4 and IL-6 synthesis in vitro: Variation in signaling requirements and kinetics are dependent on the anatomic source of the responding mononuclear cellsRegional immunology.  3:341-348. 1990
    1990 Studies on the distribution of S-adenosylmethionine: Protein N-methyltransferases in human splenocytesClinical Chemistry and Enzymology Communications.  2:125-135. 1990
    1990 Bactericidal and opsonic activity of IgGl and IgG2 anticapsular antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type bJournal of Infectious Diseases.  162:163-171. 1990
    1990 Clinical and immunologic characteristics of healthy children with subnormal serum concentrations of igG2Pediatric Research.  27:16-21. 1990
    1990 Heteroantibody: Phantom of the immunoassay 1990
    1990 Immunologic and clinical status of blood donors with subnormal levels of IgG2Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  85:769-777. 1990
    1990 Production, characterization and use of five monoclonal antibodies to human IL-4Lymphokine research.  9:81-93. 1990
    1990 Subnormal serum concentrations of IgG2 in children with frequent infections associated with varied patterns of immunologic dysfunctionJournal of Pediatrics.  116:529-538. 1990
    1989 Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. III. A single V(K)II gene and one of several JK genes are joined by an invariant arginine to form the most common L chain V regionJournal of Immunology.  143:4110-4116. 1989
    1989 The Hook Effect: High Concentrations of Prostate-Specific Antigen Giving Artifactually Low Values on One-Step ImmunoassayNew England Journal of Medicine.  320:1755-1756. 1989
    1989 Subpopulations of B lymphocytes in germinal centers, II. A germinal center B cell subpopulation expresses sIgD and CD23Immunology Letters.  21:201-208. 1989
    1989 Alterations in Serum Immunoglobulin G Subclasses in Patients With-Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's DiseaseGastroenterology.  96:764-768. 1989
    1989 Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. Demonstration of three types of V regions and their association with H and L chain isotypesJournal of Immunology.  142:2519-2526. 1989
    1989 Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. II. IgG antibodies contain V(H) genes from a single V(H) family and V(L) genes from at least four V(L) familiesJournal of Immunology.  143:293-298. 1989
    1989 Host and bacterial factors associated with haemophilus influenzae type b disease in minnesota children vaccinated with type b polysaccharide vaccineJournal of Infectious Diseases.  159:908-916. 1989
    1989 Immunology and immunopathology of the intestines: Antibody secretion by human intestinal mononuclear cells from normal controls and inflammatory bowel disease patients 1989
    1989 Mitogen-induced human IgG subclass expression. II. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses are preferentially stimulated by a combination of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I and pokeweed mitogenHuman Immunology.  24:207-218. 1989
    1989 More on "hook effects" in immunometric assays for prostate-specific antigen. 1989
    1989 New fluorescence assay for the quantitation of fungiJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  27:2003-2007. 1989
    1988 A simple in situ cyanogen bromide cleavage method to obtain internal amino acid sequence of proteins electroblotted to polyvinyldifluoride membranesBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.  155:1353-1359. 1988
    1988 Extremely high values of prostate-specific antigen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate; demonstration of the 'hook effect' 1988
    1988 Further immunologic evaluation of children who develop haemophilus disease despite previous vaccination with type b polysaccharide vaccine.Monographs in allergy.  23:256-268. 1988
    1988 Human IgG subclasses and their relation to carbohydrate antigen immunocompetenceJournal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis.  5:241-248. 1988
    1988 Human antibodies to group A streptococcal carbohydrate. Ontogeny, subclass restriction, and clonal diversityJournal of Immunology.  140:3200-3205. 1988
    1988 IgG2 subclass deficiency: IgG subclass assays and IgG2 concentrations among 8015 blood donors 1988
    1988 Semi-automated direct colorimetric measurement of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity after extraction from serum by use of a CK-MB-specific monoclonal antibody 1988
    1987 Human antibodies to phosphocholine. IgG anti-PC antibodies express restricted numbers of V and C regionsJournal of Immunology.  138:3325-3331. 1987
    1987 Subclass distribution of human antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharideJournal of Immunology.  138:587-592. 1987
    1987 Altered patterns of secretion of IgA and IgG subclasses by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease intestinal mononuclear cells.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology.  216 A:335-344. 1987
    1987 Concentrations of antibodies in paired maternal and infant sera: Relationship to IgG subclassJournal of Pediatrics.  111:783-788. 1987
    1987 Expression of human IgG subclassesAnnals of Clinical and Laboratory Science.  17:183-196. 1987
    1987 Expression of human immunoglobulin G subclasses in inflammatory bowel diseaseGastroenterology.  93:1127-1129. 1987
    1987 IgG subclass deficiency and immunocompetence to carbohydrate antigensClinical and Applied Immunology Reviews.  8:97-100. 1987
    1987 Naturally occurring antibodies to phosphocholine as a potential index of antibody responsiveness to polysaccharidesJournal of Infectious Diseases.  155:1307-1314. 1987
    1987 Study of the DBA/2Ha immunodeficiency: X-chromosome mosaicism and in vivo immunoresponsesImmunology Letters.  15:179-185. 1987
    1987 Subpopulations of B lymphocytes in germinal centersJournal of Immunology.  139:2187-2194. 1987
    1986 Hemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Children Vaccinated with Type B Polysaccharide VaccineNew England Journal of Medicine.  315:1584-1590. 1986
    1986 Patients with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome have normal IgG2 levelsJournal of Immunology.  137:3484-3487. 1986
    1986 Spontaneous secretion of IgG subclasses by intestinal mononuclear cells: Differences between ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and controlsClinical and Experimental Immunology.  66:209-215. 1986
    1986 Human IgG subclass assays using a novel assay methodImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  88:65-73. 1986
    1986 A new polymorphic determinant on HLA-DQ moleculesHuman Immunology.  16:24-37. 1986
    1986 False increases in serum creatine kinase MB isoenzyme detected in two patients by the Behring CK-MB quantitative immunometric assay. 1986
    1986 Functional activity of different IgG subclass antibodies against type b capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzaeJournal of Immunology.  136:4232-4236. 1986
    1986 Spectrum of IgG2 subclass deficiency in children with recurrent infections: Prospective studyJournal of Pediatrics.  108:647-653. 1986
    1986 Turbidimetric assay of IgG with use of single monoclonal antibodies 1986
    1985 Correlation of serum immunoglobulin subclass concentrations with antibody responses of children to immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-pertussis vaccineJournal of Clinical Immunology.  5:390-395. 1985
    1985 IgG subclass levels and disease activity in systemic lupus erythermatosus (SLE) 1985
    1985 Monoclonal antibodies defining B lineage specific Ia epitopes in malignant lymphoma 1985
    1985 Relation of age, race, and allotype to immunoglobulin subclass concentrationsPediatric Research.  19:846-849. 1985
    1984 Mitogen-induced human IgG subclass expressionJournal of Immunology.  133:2454-2460. 1984
    1984 Monoclonal antibodies to mouse MHC antigens - I. Serologic characterization of ten anti-H-2 and anti-Ia reagentsImmunogenetics.  19:169-173. 1984
    1984 Balanced x-chromosome mosaicism in mice heterozygous for an x-linked immunodeficiency of TRF-acceptor sites 1984
    1984 Multiple vh gene segments encode murine antistreptococcal antibodiesJournal of Experimental Medicine.  159:179-192. 1984
    1983 A unique DR-related B cell differentiation antigenJournal of Immunology.  131:2458-2467. 1983
    1983 Unbalanced x chromosome mosaicism in B cells of mice with X-linked immunodeficiencyJournal of Experimental Medicine.  158:920-931. 1983
    1983 Monoclonal antibodies to streptococcal group A carbohydrate. II. The VK1(GAC) light chain is preferentially associated with serum IgG3Journal of Immunology.  131:1326-1331. 1983
    1982 Streptococcal group A carbohydrate has properties of both a thymus-independent (TI-2) and a thymus-dependent antigenJournal of Immunology.  128:2032-2035. 1982
    1982 Monoclonal antibodies to streptococcal group A carbohydrate. I. A dominant idiotypic determinant is located on V(K)1Journal of Immunology.  129:1513-1518. 1982
    1981 Antiphosphocholine antibodies found in normal mouse serum are protective against intravenous infection with type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniaeJournal of Experimental Medicine.  153:694-705. 1981
    1980 Antigenic similarities of rat and mouse IgG subclasses associated with anti-carbohydrate specificitiesImmunogenetics.  11:199-203. 1980
    1980 Improved diagnostic accuracy using monoclonal antibody to group A streptococcal carbohydrateJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  12:506-508. 1980
    1980 Subclass restriction of murine antibodies. II. The IgG plaque-forming cell response to thymus-independent type 1 and type 2 antigens in normal mice and mice expressing an X-linked immunodeficiencyJournal of Experimental Medicine.  151:853-862. 1980
    1979 Immunoglobulin subclass-specific immunodeficiency in mice with an X-linked B-lymphocyte defect*Journal of Experimental Medicine.  149:993-998. 1979
    1977 A new method of applying the Sips equationJournal of Immunology.  119:301-305. 1977


    Year Title Altmetric
    2003 Immunity to Extracellular Bacteria:.  1263-1284. 2003

    Research Overview

  • Pneumococcus is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia and is responsible for a large number of deaths worldwide among young children and old adults. Its virulence is mostly due to its carbohydrate capsule, which encases the pneumococci and shields them from the host immune system. Antibodies to the capsule can kill pneumococci and protect us from infections. Because our body can make these antibodies if the capsule is injected into us, the capsule is useful as a vaccine against pneumococcal infections. Pneumococci can express almost 100 types of capsule, but actual vaccines contain 10-23 common capsule types (serotypes). Following the widespread use of these vaccines however, serotypes absent from the vaccine have become more common, and vaccines have become less effective overall. To understand how pneumococci can evade vaccines, and to improve these vaccines, my laboratory studies diversity and immunity to the pneumococcus capsule. Our studies of capsule diversity have led us to discover many new and important capsule types. Our discovery of serotype 6C showed how pneumococci can evade pneumococcal vaccines and has provided knowledge essential to vaccine design. Our discovery of 11E showed that innate immunity can recognize capsule and induce changes in capsule-making genes as pneumococci adapt to live in different body niches. It also showed that innate immunity can recognize variable pathogen structures and how pneumococci adapt to different niches of the body. We are now investigating how completely the capsule encases a bacterium. If the capsule leaves some areas of the pneumococcal surface exposed, then the molecules in the exposed areas can be useful as new vaccines. To do this, we are currently studying bacterial capsules and their synthesis with new super-resolution microscopy, which can visualize down to molecular dimensions. Our studies of immunity to the capsule showed that some vaccines can elicit non-functional antibodies. Thus, vaccine development can be simplified if antibodies can be tested directly for their function. We have developed a practical way to measure antibody function by inventing MOPA (Multiplexed OpsonoPhagocytic Assay). MOPA has become essential in improving pneumococcal vaccines and has simplified vaccine manufacture and evaluation. MOPA is now facilitating production of low cost pneumococcal vaccines available for the entire world. Our laboratory has been serving as a reference laboratory to the World Health Organization in this field.
  • Principal Investigator On

  • 2012 International Meeting on Opsonophagocytosis Assy (OPA) Standardization  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS
  • A Multiplex Label-Free Chip for Pneumococcus Serology  awarded by University of Rochester
  • Acquired Deficiency of Innate Immunity (Ficolin-2) Among Elderly Adults  awarded by National Institute on Aging/NIH/DHHS
  • Bacterial Respiratory Pathogens Reference Laboratory Support  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS
  • Establishment of Functional Assays for Evaluation of Diarrheal Vaccines  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS
  • GPS2: Global Pneumococcal Sequence Surveillance 2.0  awarded by Wellcome Sanger Institute
  • Group B Streptococcus Serologic Assay Standardization  awarded by ST. GEORGE'S UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
  • Impact of a New Group 6 Serotype on Pneumococcal Vaccines  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS
  • Integrating Microbial Glycan Arrays with Genomic Sequences to Study Host Microbe Interactions  awarded by Emory University
  • Integrating Microbial Glycan Arrays with Genomic Sequences to Study Host Microbe Interactions  awarded by Brigham and Women's Hospital
  • International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Group  awarded by JOHNS HOPKINS SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
  • Pneumoccoccal Colonization  awarded by University of Rochester
  • Pneumococcal Capsule and Host Innate Immunity  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS
  • Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Old Adults  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK & COMPANY, INC. ^
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP
  • Private Grant  awarded by GlaxoSmithKline
  • Private Grant  awarded by Jackson Laboratory
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP
  • RPRC Respiratory Pathogens Research Center  awarded by University of Rochester
  • Serologic Analysis of VTEU Study 11-0034  awarded by University of Rochester
  • Serological Assays to Predict Shigella Vaccine Efficacy  awarded by University of Maryland, Baltimore County
  • The Role of wcjE Disruption in Pneumococcal Serotype 11A Humoral Escape  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS
  • Transferring MOPA4 to the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products of China  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Medicine, Washington University/St. Louis 1974
  • Full Name

  • Moon Nahm