• Moon H. Nahm, Professor of Department of Medicine, with secondary appointment in Microbiology, obtained both his BA degree (in 1970) and MD degree (in 1974) from Washington University in St. Louis MO. In 1980, he completed both Internal Medicine and Laboratory Medicine residency training in Pathology Department, as well as completing post-doctoral research training in Microbiology Department at Washington University in St. Louis MO. He was a faculty member at Washington University in St. Louis and University of Rochester before he joined UAB. He was the director of the Clinical Immunology Laboratory for UAB hospitals.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2019 Development for clinical use of a multiplexed immunoassay using sputum samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae: A non-culture-based approach for serotype-specific detection. 2019
    2019 Interlaboratory variability in multiplexed pneumococcal antibody testing 2019
    2019 A High-throughput Shigella-specific Bactericidal Assay 2019
    2019 Molecular typing, antibiotic susceptibility, and biofilm production in nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in Japan 2019
    2018 Ficolin-2 binds to serotype 35B pneumococcus as it does to serotypes 11A and 31, and these serotypes cause more infections in older adults than in children 2018
    2018 Measuring immune responses to pneumococcal vaccines 2018
    2018 Development, Interlaboratory Evaluations, and Application of a Simple, High-Throughput Shigella Serum Bactericidal Assay 2018
    2017 WciG O-acetyltransferase functionality differentiates pneumococcal serotypes 35C and 42 2017
    2017 The pneumococcal serotype 15C capsule is partially O-acetylated and allows for limited evasion of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-elicited anti-serotype 15B antibodies 2017
    2017 Position of O-acetylation within the capsular repeat unit impacts the biological properties of pneumococcal serotypes 33A and 33F 2017
    2017 Discovery of novel pneumococcal serotype 35D, a natural WciG-deficient variant of serotype 35B 2017
    2016 Ficolin-2 inhibitors are present in sera after prolonged storage at -80 °C 2016
    2016 Indirect effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in national immunization programs for children on adult pneumococcal disease 2016
    2016 NOD-like receptors in infection, immunity, and diseases 2016
    2015 Genetic, biochemical, and serological characterization of a new pneumococcal serotype, 6H, and generation of a pneumococcal strain producing three different capsular repeat units 2015
    2014 Commercially available complement component-depleted sera are unexpectedly codepleted of ficolin-2 2014
    2014 Population-based analysis of invasive nontypeable pneumococci reveals that most have defective capsule synthesis genes 2014
    2014 Impaired serotype-specific immune function following pneumococcal vaccination in infants with prior carriage 2014
    2014 Spectrum of pneumococcal serotype 11A variants results from incomplete loss of capsule O-acetylation 2014
    2013 L-rhamnose is often an important part of immunodominant epitope for pneumococcal serotype 23F polysaccharide antibodies in human sera immunized with PPV23 2013
    2013 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C presenting as recurrent prosthetic knee joint infection in a patient with a history of congenital asplenia and underlying autoimmune disease: A case report and literature review 2013
    2013 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsules 2013
    2013 Modified opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing assays to measure potentially protective antibodies against pneumococcal surface protein A 2013
    2013 Low opsonic activity to the infecting serotype in pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease 2013
    2013 Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody 2013
    2013 PspK of Streptococcus pneumoniae increases adherence to epithelial cells and enhances nasopharyngeal colonization 2013
    2012 Long-term comparative immunogenicity of protein conjugate and free polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2012
    2012 Biochemical, genetic, and serological characterization of two capsule subtypes among Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 20 strains: Discovery of a new pneumococcal serotype 2012
    2012 PspA family distribution, unlike capsular serotype, remains unaltered following introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2012
    2012 Nontypeable pneumococci can be divided into multiple cps types, including one type expressing the novel gene pspK 2012
    2012 Structural characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9A capsule polysaccharide reveals role of glycosyl 6-O-acetyltransferase wcjE in serotype 9V capsule biosynthesis and immunogenicity 2012
    2012 Differential occurrence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11E between asymptomatic carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease isolates reflects a unique model of pathogen microevolution 2012
    2012 Issues and challenges in the development of pneumococcal protein vaccines 2012
    2012 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsules 2012
    2012 Immune responses to pneumococcal vaccines in children and adults: Rationale for age-specific vaccination 2012
    2011 Active immunization with pneumolysin versus 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae keratitis 2011
    2011 Development of an automated and multiplexed serotyping assay for Streptococcus pneumoniae 2011
    2011 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsules 2011
    2011 Erratum: Identification of a simple chemical structure associated with protective human antibodies against multiple pneumococcal serogroups 2011
    2011 Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage of children attending day care centers in Korea: Comparison between children immunized with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and non-immunized 2011
    2011 Pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumonia with pleural effusion in pediatric patients 2011
    2011 Evolution of the capsular gene locus of streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 6 2011
    2011 Multilaboratory comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae opsonophagocytic killing assays and their level of agreement for the determination of functional antibody activity in human reference sera 2011
    2010 Differential circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C clones in two Israeli pediatric populations 2010
    2010 Non-typeable Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage isolates genetically similar to invasive and carriage isolates expressing capsular type 14 in Brazilian infants 2010
    2010 The burden and characteristics of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) in South Korea: a study from a population database and a survey. 2010
    2010 Identification of natural pneumococcal isolates expressing serotype 6D by genetic, biochemical and serological characterization 2010
    2010 Survey of nonsusceptible nasopharyngeal streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in children attending day-care centers in Brazil 2010
    2009 Production of a unique pneumococcal capsule serotype belonging to serogroup 6 2009
    2009 Immune response in infants to the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-related serotypes 6A and 19A 2009
    2009 PCR-based quantitation and clonal diversity of the current prevalent invasive serogroup 6 pneumococcal serotype, 6C, in the United States in 1999 and 2006 to 2007 2009
    2009 Increase in the prevalence of the newly discovered pneumococcal serotype 6C in the nasopharynx after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2009
    2008 Pneumococcal vaccination in older adults induces antibodies with low opsonic capacity and reduced antibody potency 2008
    2008 Initial and subsequent response to pneumococcal polysaccharide and protein-conjugate vaccines administered sequentially to adults who have recovered from pneumococcal pneumonia 2008
    2008 A rapid pneumococcal serotyping system based on monoclonal antibodies and PCR 2008
    2007 Guidelines for assessing immunocompetency in clinical trials for autoimmune diseases 2007
    2007 Immunogenicity of varying dosages of 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine in seniors previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 2007
    2007 Discovery of a new capsular serotype (6C) within serogroup 6 of Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007
    2006 Development and validation of a fourfold multiplexed opsonization assay (MOPA4) for pneumococcal antibodies 2006
    2006 Erratum: Lipoteichoic acid-induced nitric oxide production depends on the activation of platelet-activating factor receptor and Jak2 (Journal of Immunology (2006) 176 (573-579)) 2006
    2005 Anti-idiotypic antibody as a potential candidate vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B 2005
    2005 Simplified method to automatically count bacterial colony forming unit 2005
    2005 Monoacyl lipoteichoic acid from pneumococci stimulates human cells but not mouse cells 2005
    2005 Rapid multiplex assay for serotyping pneumococci with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies 2005
    2004 Development of experimental carbohydrate-conjugate vaccines composed of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides and the universal helper T-lymphocyte epitope (PADRE®) 2004
    2003 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of human antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides 2003
    2003 Genetic relatedness of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from North America 2003
    2003 Immunogenic protein contaminants in pneumococcal vaccines 2003
    2002 Peptide mimotopes of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide of 6B serotype: A peptide mimotope can bind to two unrelated antibodies 2002
    2002 Type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide induces antibodies that cross-react with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 2002
    2001 Comparison of a classical phagocytosis assay and a flow cytometry assay for assessment of the phagocytic capacity of sera from adults vaccinated with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2001
    2000 Development of a multi-specificity opsonophagocytic killing assay 2000
    2000 A latex bead-based flow cytometric immunoassay capable of simultaneous typing of multiple pneumococcal serotypes (multibead assay) 2000
    2000 Ablation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (p55) alters oxygen- induced lung injury 2000
    2000 Acquired, but not innate, immune responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae are compromised by neutralization of CD40L 2000
    2000 Immunization of humans with recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A (rPspA) elicits antibodies that passively protect mice from fatal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae bearing heterologous PspA 2000
    2000 Pathway analysis in metabolic databases via differential metabolic display (DMD) 2000
    2000 Peptide mimic of phosphorylcholine, a dominant epitope found on Streptococcus pneumoniae 2000
    1999 Immunity to cross-reactive serotypes induced by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infants 1999
    1999 Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B 1999
    1997 Sequence diversity of VL kappa regions in korean adults and children immunized with a haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine 1997
    1997 Fas and Fas Ligand Enhance the Pathogenesis of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis, but Are Not Essential for Immune Privilege in the Central Nervous System 1997
    1997 Identification of cross-reactive antibodies with low opsonophagocytic activity for Streptococcus pneumoniae 1997
    1997 Intranasal immunization of mice with PspA (Pneumococcal surface protein A) can prevent lntranasal carriage, pulmonary infection, and sepsis with Streptococcus pneumoniae 1997
    1996 Association of placental transfer of anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antibodies with their V regions 1996
    1996 Affinity maturation without germinal centres in lymphotoxin-α- deficient mice 1996
    1996 Role of lymphotoxin and the type I TNF receptor in the formation of germinal centers 1996
    1995 Functional capacities of clonal antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide 1995
    1995 Germinal center T cells exhibit properties of memory helper T cells 1995
    1994 Endogenous serum antibodies that interfere with a common thyroid hormone uptake assay: Characterization and prevalence 1994
    1994 Comparison of nonhuman primate antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide with human antibodies in oligoclonality and in vivo protective potency 1994
    1994 Properties of human follicular dendritic cells purified with HJ2, a new monoclonal antibody 1994
    1993 Cost-effective method for detection of 'hook effect' in tumor marker immunometric assays [4] 1993
    1993 T cells within germinal centers are specific for the immunizing antigen 1993
    1992 Functional properties of human germinal center B cells 1992
    1992 Characterization of the Human IgG Antibody VLRepertoire to Haemophilus influenzae Type b Polysaccharide 1992
    1991 An idiotypic marker associated with a germ-line encoded κ light chain variable region that predominates the vaccine-induced human antibody response to the Haemophilus influenzae b polysaccharide 1991
    1991 Human rib bone marrow mononuclear cells spontaneously synthesize and secrete IgE in vitro 1991
    1990 Heteroantibody: Phantom of the immunoassay 1990
    1990 Studies on the distribution of S-adenosylmethionine: Protein N-methyltransferases in human splenocytes 1990
    1990 Bactericidal and opsonic activity of IgGl and IgG2 anticapsular antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b 1990
    1990 Clinical and immunologic characteristics of healthy children with subnormal serum concentrations of igG2 1990
    1990 Subnormal serum concentrations of IgG2 in children with frequent infections associated with varied patterns of immunologic dysfunction 1990
    1989 Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. III. A single V(K)II gene and one of several JK genes are joined by an invariant arginine to form the most common L chain V region 1989
    1989 The Hook Effect: High Concentrations of Prostate-Specific Antigen Giving Artifactually Low Values on One-Step Immunoassay 1989
    1989 Subpopulations of B lymphocytes in germinal centers, II. A germinal center B cell subpopulation expresses sIgD and CD23 1989
    1989 Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. II. IgG antibodies contain V(H) genes from a single V(H) family and V(L) genes from at least four V(L) families 1989
    1988 Extremely high values of prostate-specific antigen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate; demonstration of the 'hook effect' 1988
    1988 IgG2 subclass deficiency: IgG subclass assays and IgG2 concentrations among 8015 blood donors 1988
    1988 Semi-automated direct colorimetric measurement of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity after extraction from serum by use of a CK-MB-specific monoclonal antibody 1988
    1987 Human antibodies to phosphocholine. IgG anti-PC antibodies express restricted numbers of V and C regions 1987
    1987 Subclass distribution of human antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide 1987
    1987 Concentrations of antibodies in paired maternal and infant sera: Relationship to IgG subclass 1987
    1987 Expression of human IgG subclasses 1987
    1987 Expression of human immunoglobulin G subclasses in inflammatory bowel disease 1987
    1987 IgG subclass deficiency and immunocompetence to carbohydrate antigens 1987
    1987 Study of the DBA/2Ha immunodeficiency: X-chromosome mosaicism and in vivo immunoresponses 1987
    1986 Hemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Children Vaccinated with Type B Polysaccharide Vaccine 1986
    1986 Turbidimetric assay of IgG with use of single monoclonal antibodies 1986
    1986 A new polymorphic determinant on HLA-DQ molecules 1986
    1986 Functional activity of different IgG subclass antibodies against type b capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae 1986
    1986 Spectrum of IgG2 subclass deficiency in children with recurrent infections: Prospective study 1986
    1985 Correlation of serum immunoglobulin subclass concentrations with antibody responses of children to immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-pertussis vaccine 1985
    1985 Monoclonal antibodies defining B lineage specific Ia epitopes in malignant lymphoma 1985
    1985 Relation of age, race, and allotype to immunoglobulin subclass concentrations 1985
    1984 Mitogen-induced human IgG subclass expression 1984
    1984 Balanced x-chromosome mosaicism in mice heterozygous for an x-linked immunodeficiency of TRF-acceptor sites 1984
    1984 Multiple vh gene segments encode murine antistreptococcal antibodies 1984
    1983 A unique DR-related B cell differentiation antigen 1983
    1983 Unbalanced x chromosome mosaicism in B cells of mice with X-linked immunodeficiency 1983
    1982 Monoclonal antibodies to streptococcal group A carbohydrate. I. A dominant idiotypic determinant is located on V(K)1 1982
    1981 Antiphosphocholine antibodies found in normal mouse serum are protective against intravenous infection with type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae 1981
    1980 Subclass restriction of murine antibodies. II. The IgG plaque-forming cell response to thymus-independent type 1 and type 2 antigens in normal mice and mice expressing an X-linked immunodeficiency 1980
    A simple in situ cyanogen bromide cleavage method to obtain internal amino acid sequence of proteins electroblotted to polyvinyldifluoride membranes
    Antigenic similarities of rat and mouse IgG subclasses associated with anti-carbohydrate specificities
    Central role of complement in passive protection by human IgG1 and IgG2 anti-pneumococcal antibodies in mice
    Distinct roles of lymphotoxin α and the type i tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor in the establishment of follicular dendritic cells from non- bone marrow-derived cells
    Lipoteichoic acid is important in innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteria
    Pneumococcal vaccination for patients with COPD: Current practice and future directions
    Randomized clinical trial of a single versus a double dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in adults 55 through 74 years of age previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    Revaccination of adults with spinal cord injury using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits cross-functional opsonophagocytic killing responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D in children
    The effect of age on the response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    The structure of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotype 11A reveals a novel acetylglycerol that is the structural basis for 11A subtypes (The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009) 284 (7318-7329))


    Year Title Altmetric
    2003 Immunity to Extracellular Bacteria:.  1263-1284. 2003

    Research Overview

  • Pneumococcus is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia and is responsible for a large number of deaths worldwide among young children and old adults. Its virulence is mostly due to its carbohydrate capsule, which encases the pneumococci and shields them from the host immune system. Antibodies to the capsule can kill pneumococci and protect us from infections. Because our body can make these antibodies if the capsule is injected into us, the capsule is useful as a vaccine against pneumococcal infections. Pneumococci can express almost 100 types of capsule, but actual vaccines contain 10-23 common capsule types (serotypes). Following the widespread use of these vaccines however, serotypes absent from the vaccine have become more common, and vaccines have become less effective overall. To understand how pneumococci can evade vaccines, and to improve these vaccines, my laboratory studies diversity and immunity to the pneumococcus capsule. Our studies of capsule diversity have led us to discover many new and important capsule types. Our discovery of serotype 6C showed how pneumococci can evade pneumococcal vaccines and has provided knowledge essential to vaccine design. Our discovery of 11E showed that innate immunity can recognize capsule and induce changes in capsule-making genes as pneumococci adapt to live in different body niches. It also showed that innate immunity can recognize variable pathogen structures and how pneumococci adapt to different niches of the body. We are now investigating how completely the capsule encases a bacterium. If the capsule leaves some areas of the pneumococcal surface exposed, then the molecules in the exposed areas can be useful as new vaccines. To do this, we are currently studying bacterial capsules and their synthesis with new super-resolution microscopy, which can visualize down to molecular dimensions. Our studies of immunity to the capsule showed that some vaccines can elicit non-functional antibodies. Thus, vaccine development can be simplified if antibodies can be tested directly for their function. We have developed a practical way to measure antibody function by inventing MOPA (Multiplexed OpsonoPhagocytic Assay). MOPA has become essential in improving pneumococcal vaccines and has simplified vaccine manufacture and evaluation. MOPA is now facilitating production of low cost pneumococcal vaccines available for the entire world. Our laboratory has been serving as a reference laboratory to the World Health Organization in this field.
  • Principal Investigator On

  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2019 - 2021
  • Serological Assays to Predict Shigella Vaccine Efficacy  awarded by University of Maryland, Baltimore County 2016 - 2021
  • Private Grant  awarded by Jackson Laboratory 2016 - 2020
  • Acquired Deficiency of Innate Immunity (Ficolin-2) Among Elderly Adults  awarded by National Institute on Aging/NIH/DHHS 2015 - 2020
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA 2018 - 2019
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA 2018 - 2019
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA 2018 - 2019
  • Group B Streptococcus Serologic Assay Standardization  awarded by ST. GEORGE'S UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 2016 - 2019
  • RPRC Respiratory Pathogens Research Center  awarded by University of Rochester 2012 - 2018
  • Establishment of Functional Assays for Evaluation of Diarrheal Vaccines  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS 2012 - 2018
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2016 - 2018
  • Pneumoccoccal Colonization  awarded by University of Rochester 2015 - 2018
  • Private Grant  awarded by GlaxoSmithKline 2015 - 2017
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2015 - 2016
  • Serologic Analysis of VTEU Study 11-0034  awarded by University of Rochester 2015
  • A Multiplex Label-Free Chip for Pneumococcus Serology  awarded by University of Rochester 2013 - 2015
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK & COMPANY, INC. 2014 - 2015
  • Transferring MOPA4 to the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products of China  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS 2012 - 2014
  • The Role of wcjE Disruption in Pneumococcal Serotype 11A Humoral Escape  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2011 - 2014
  • International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Group  awarded by JOHNS HOPKINS SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 2012 - 2013
  • Pneumococcal Capsule and Host Innate Immunity  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2012 - 2013
  • Bacterial Respiratory Pathogens Reference Laboratory Support  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2003 - 2012
  • Impact of a New Group 6 Serotype on Pneumococcal Vaccines  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2007 - 2012
  • 2012 International Meeting on Opsonophagocytosis Assy (OPA) Standardization  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS 2011 - 2012
  • Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Old Adults  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2006 - 2011
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Medicine, Washington University/St. Louis 1974
  • Full Name

  • Moon Nahm