• John C. Kappes (b. 1957), Associate Professor of Medicine and Microbiology, completed his undergraduate studies in biology at Thomas More College (B.A. in Biology, 1981) and received his Ph.D. in Microbiology and Experimental Medicine from St. Thomas Institute in 1986. Dr. Kappes completed his postdoctoral fellowship studying the molecular pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency viruses and joined the UAB faculty in 1989.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2022 In vivo killing of primary HIV-infected cells by peripheral-injected early memory–enriched anti-HIV duoCAR T cellsJCI Insight.  7. 2022
    2022 Functional and Highly Cross-Linkable HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins Enriched in a Pretriggered ConformationJournal of Virology.  96. 2022
    2022 Detection of the HIV-1 Accessory Proteins Nef and Vpu by Flow Cytometry Represents a New Tool to Study Their Functional Interplay within a Single Infected CD4+ T CellJournal of Virology.  96. 2022
    2022 Analysis of Glycosylation and Disulfide Bonding of Wild-Type SARS-CoV-2 Spike GlycoproteinJournal of Virology.  96. 2022
    2021 The opportunity cost of automated glycopeptide analysis: case study profiling the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoproteinAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry.  413:7215-7227. 2021
    2021 Asymmetric Structures and Conformational Plasticity of the Uncleaved Full-Length Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoprotein TrimerJournal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2021 Analysis of glycosylation and disulfide bonding of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. 2021
    2021 Spike glycoprotein and host cell determinants of SARS-CoV-2 entry and cytopathic effectsJournal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2021 Dual pathways of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein trafficking modulate the selective exclusion of uncleaved oligomers from virionsJournal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2020 Author Correction: Sex-specific innate immune selection of HIV-1 in utero is associated with increased female susceptibility to infection (Nature Communications, (2020), 11, 1, (1767), 10.1038/s41467-020-15632-y)Nature Communications.  11. 2020
    2020 Sex-specific innate immune selection of HIV-1 in utero is associated with increased female susceptibility to infectionNature Communications.  11. 2020
    2020 Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Complexed to a Small-Molecule Viral Entry InhibitorJournal of Virology.  94. 2020
    2020 Long-Acting bms-378806 analogues stabilize the state-1 conformation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteinsJournal of Virology.  94. 2020
    2020 Accumulated mutations by 6 months of infection collectively render transmitted/founder HIV-1 significantly less fitJournal of Infection.  80:210-218. 2020
    2019 Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC)-Mediating Antibodies Constrain Neutralizing Antibody Escape PathwayFrontiers in Immunology.  10. 2019
    2019 Sexually transmitted founder HIV-1 viruses are relatively resistant to Langerhans cell-mediated restrictionPLoS One.  14. 2019
    2019 Primary HIV-1 strains use nef to downmodulate HLA-E surface expressionJournal of Virology.  93. 2019
    2019 Multispecific anti-HIV duoCAR-T cells display broad in vitro antiviral activity and potent in vivo elimination of HIV-infected cells in a humanized mouse modelScience Translational Medicine.  11. 2019
    2019 Growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR)-specific inhibition of GH-Induced signaling by soluble IGF-1 receptor (sol IGF-1R)Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.  492. 2019
    2018 Incomplete downregulation of CD4 expression affects HIV-1 Env conformation and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses.Journal of Virology.  92. 2018
    2018 Structural stability of purified human CFTR is systematically improved by mutations in nucleotide binding domain 1 2018
    2017 Potent in vivo NK cellmediated elimination of HIV-1-infected cells mobilized by a gp120-bispecific and hexavalent broadly neutralizing fusion proteinJournal of Virology.  91. 2017
    2017 Substitution of Yor1p NBD1 residues improves the thermal stability of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator 2017
    2017 Glycosylation benchmark profile for HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein production based on eleven Env trimersJournal of Virology.  91. 2017
    2017 Staged induction of HIV-1 glycan-dependent broadly neutralizing antibodiesScience Translational Medicine.  9. 2017
    2017 Dendritic cells from the human female reproductive tract rapidly capture and respond to HIVMucosal Immunology.  10:531-544. 2017
    2017 Evaluation of the contribution of the transmembrane region to the ectodomain conformation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteinVirology Journal.  14. 2017
    2017 Antigenic characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor incorporated into nanodiscsPLoS One.  12. 2017
    2017 Specific stabilization of CFTR by phosphatidylserine 2017
    2017 The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteriaPLoS Pathogens.  13. 2017
    2017 The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor augments mucociliary clearance abrogating cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibition by cigarette smokeAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.  56:99-108. 2017
    2016 Diversity of antiviral IgG effector activities observed in HIV-infected and vaccinated subjectsJournal of Immunology.  197:4603-4612. 2016
    2016 Expression and purification of the alpha subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaCProtein Expression and Purification.  117:67-75. 2016
    2016 Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, augments the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic potential of sorafenib in melanomaOncotarget.  7:1227-1241. 2016
    2016 High-throughput humanized mouse models for evaluation of HIV-1 therapeutics and pathogenesisMethods in Molecular Biology.  1354:221-235. 2016
    2016 Inhibition of NADPH oxidase 1 activity and blocking the binding of cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins by honokiol inhibit migratory potential of melanoma cellsOncotarget.  7:7899-7912. 2016
    2015 Optimized Replicating Renilla Luciferase Reporter HIV-1 Utilizing Novel Internal Ribosome Entry Site Elements for Native Nef Expression and FunctionAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  31:1278-1296. 2015
    2015 A Stable Human-Cell System Overexpressing Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Recombinant Protein at the Cell SurfaceMolecular Biotechnology.  57:391-405. 2015
    2015 Erratum to: A Stable Human-Cell System Overexpressing Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Recombinant Protein at the Cell Surface [Mol Biotechnol, DOI 10.1007/s12033-014-9830-5]Molecular Biotechnology.  57:406. 2015
    2015 Comparative analysis of the glycosylation profiles of membrane-anchored HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers and soluble gp140Journal of Virology.  89:8245-8257. 2015
    2015 In vivo activation of human NK cells by treatment with an interleukin-15 superagonist potently inhibits acute in vivo HIV-1 infection in humanized miceJournal of Virology.  89:6264-6274. 2015
    2015 The vaginal acquisition and dissemination of HIV-1 infection in a novel transgenic mouse model is facilitated by coinfection with herpes simplex virus 2 and is inhibited by microbicide treatmentJournal of Virology.  89:9559-9570. 2015
    2015 Therapeutic intervention of proanthocyanidins on the migration capacity of melanoma cells is mediated through PGE2 receptors and β-catenin signaling moleculesAmerican Journal of Cancer Research.  5:3325-3338. 2015
    2014 Macrophage infection via selective capture of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cellsCell Host and Microbe.  16:711-721. 2014
    2014 Combinatorial therapy with tamoxifen and trifluoperazine effectively inhibits malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor growth by targeting complementary signaling cascadesJournal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology.  73:1078-1090. 2014
    2014 Global panel of HIV-1 env reference strains for standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodiesJournal of Virology.  88:2489-2507. 2014
    2014 High-multiplicity HIV-1 infection and neutralizing antibody evasion mediated by the macrophage-T cell virological synapseJournal of Virology.  88:2025-2034. 2014
    2014 Erratum: Resveratrol Enhances Airway Surface Liquid Depth in Sinonasal Epithelium by Increasing Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Open Probability (PLoS ONE (2014) 9:1 (DOI:10.1371/annotation/d852ff1d-2824- 4f4d-80f2-9be7a42a5f25))PLoS One.  9. 2014
    2014 A survey of detergents for the purification of stable, active human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) 2014
    2014 Casp8p41 generated by HIV protease kills CD4 T cells through direct Bak activation 2014
    2014 Correction to Casp8p41 generated by HIV protease kills CD4 T cells through direct Bak activation [Journal of Cell Biology, 206, 7, (2014), 867-876] 2014
    2014 Development of a luciferase based viral inhibition assay to evaluate vaccine induced CD8 T-cell responsesImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  409:161-173. 2014
    2014 Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domainsProtein Science.  23:769-789. 2014
    2014 Optimization and validation of a neutralizing antibody assay for HIV-1 in A3R5 cellsImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  409:147-160. 2014
    2014 Vaginal myeloid dendritic cells transmit founder HIV-1Journal of Virology.  88:7683-7688. 2014
    2013 Relative resistance of HIV-1 founder viruses to control by interferon-alphaRetrovirology.  10. 2013
    2013 Impact of HIV-1 backbone on neutralization sensitivity: Neutralization profiles of heterologous envelope glycoproteins expressed in native subtype C and CRF01-AE backbonePLoS One.  8. 2013
    2013 Detection of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies in a human CD4 +/CXCR4+/CCR5+ T-lymphoblastoid cell assay systemPLoS One.  8. 2013
    2013 Resveratrol enhances airway surface liquid depth in sinonasal epithelium by increasing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator open probabilityPLoS One.  8. 2013
    2013 The silent codon change I507-ATC→ATT contributes to the severity of the AF508 CFTR channel dysfunction 2013
    2013 Lyn Facilitates Glioblastoma Cell Survival under Conditions of Nutrient Deprivation by Promoting AutophagyPLoS One.  8. 2013
    2013 Infectious virion capture by HIV-1 gp120-specific IgG from RV144 vaccineesJournal of Virology.  87:7828-7836. 2013
    2013 Mice Transgenic for CD4-Specific Human CD4, CCR5 and Cyclin T1 Expression: A New Model for Investigating HIV-1 Transmission and Treatment EfficacyPLoS One.  8. 2013
    2013 Phenotypic properties of transmitted founder HIV-1 2013
    2013 L1CAM stimulates glioma cell motility and proliferation through the fibroblast growth factor receptorClinical and Experimental Metastasis.  30:507-520. 2013
    2013 Optimization of the transductional efficiency of lentiviral vectors: Effect of sera and polycationsMolecular Biotechnology.  53:308-314. 2013
    2013 Molecular identification, cloning and characterization of transmitted/founder HIV-1 subtype A, D and A/D infectious molecular clonesVirology.  436:33-48. 2013
    2013 Mucosal tissue tropism and dissemination of HIV-1 subtype B acute envelope-expressing chimeric virusJournal of Virology.  87:890-899. 2013
    2012 HIV-1 Expressing the Envelopes of Transmitted/Founder or Control/Reference Viruses Have Similar Infection Patterns of CD4 T-Cells in Human Cervical Tissue Ex VivoPLoS One.  7. 2012
    2012 Short communication: HIV type 1 escapes inactivation by saliva via rapid escape into oral epithelial cellsAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  28:1574-1578. 2012
    2012 A young hispanic with c.1646G>A mutation exhibits severe cystic fibrosis lung disease: Is ivacaftor an option for therapy?American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.  186:694-696. 2012
    2012 Selected drugs with reported secondary cell-differentiating capacity prime latent HIV-1 infection for reactivationJournal of Virology.  86:9055-9069. 2012
    2012 Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against primary hivinfected CD4 + T cells is directly associated with the magnitude of surface igg bindingJournal of Virology.  86:8672-8680. 2012
    2012 Magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response in the RV144 and Vax003 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trialsJournal of Infectious Diseases.  206:431-441. 2012
    2012 Initial HIV-1 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection inhibit transmitted/founder virus replicationJournal of Virology.  86:6835-6846. 2012
    2012 Selective impact of HIV disease progression on the innate immune system in the human female reproductive tractPLoS One.  7. 2012
    2012 Transmitted/founder and chronic subtype C HIV-1 use CD4 and CCR5 receptors with equal efficiency and are not inhibited by blocking the integrin α4β7PLoS Pathogens.  8. 2012
    2012 The role of natural killer (NK) cells and nk cell receptor polymorphisms in the assessment of HIV-1 neutralizationPLoS One.  7. 2012
    2012 Generation of transmitted/founder HIV-1 infectious molecular clones and characterization of their replication capacity in CD4 T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophagesJournal of Virology.  86:2715-2728. 2012
    2012 Purification of CFTR for mass spectrometry analysis: Identification of palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications 2012
    2011 IgG2 inhibits HIV-1 internalization by monocytes, and IgG subclass binding is affected by gp120 glycosylationAIDS.  25:2099-2104. 2011
    2011 Dynamic antibody specificities and virion concentrations in circulating immune complexes in acute to chronic HIV-1 infectionJournal of Virology.  85:11196-11207. 2011
    2011 L1 stimulation of human glioma cell motility correlates with FAK activationJournal of Neuro-Oncology.  105:27-44. 2011
    2011 High-throughput quantitative analysis of HIV-1 and SIV-specific ADCC-mediating antibody responses 2011
    2011 An HIV-1 gp120 envelope human monoclonal antibody that recognizes a C1 conformational epitope mediates potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity and defines a common ADCC epitope in human HIV-1 serumJournal of Virology.  85:7029-7036. 2011
    2011 Stromal down-regulation of macrophage CD4/CCR5 expression and NF-κB activation mediates HIV-1 non-permissiveness in intestinal macrophagesPLoS Pathogens.  7. 2011
    2011 Tamoxifen inhibits malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor growth in an estrogen receptor-independent mannerNeuro-Oncology.  13:28-41. 2011
    2010 Replication competent molecular clones of HIV-1 expressing Renilla luciferase facilitate the analysis of antibody inhibition in PBMCVirology.  408:1-13. 2010
    2010 Uterine epithelial cell regulation of DC-SIGN expression inhibits transmitted/founder HIV-1 trans infection by immature dendritic cellsPLoS One.  5. 2010
    2010 A synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in ΔF508 CFTR alters the secondary structure of the mRNA and the expression of the mutant proteinJournal of Biological Chemistry.  285:28741-28748. 2010
    2010 Anti-HIV activity in cervical-vaginal secretions from HIV-Positive and -Negative women correlate with innate antimicrobial levels and IgG antibodiesPLoS One.  5. 2010
    2010 Phenotypic and functional profile of HIV-inhibitory CD8 T cells elicited by natural infection and heterologous prime/boost vaccinationJournal of Virology.  84:4998-5006. 2010
    2010 Anti-phospholipid human monoclonal antibodies inhibit CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and induce β-chemokinesJournal of Experimental Medicine.  207:763-776. 2010
    2010 GP41-specific antibody blocks cell-free HIV type 1 transcytosis through human rectal mucosa and model colonic epitheliumJournal of Immunology.  184:3648-3655. 2010
    2010 Loss of DNAM-1 contributes to CD8+ T-cell exhaustion in chronic HIV-1 infectionEuropean Journal of Immunology.  40:949-954. 2010
    2010 Differential inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and TZM-bl cells by endotoxin-mediated chemokine and gamma interferon productionAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  26:279-291. 2010
    2009 Cystin localizes to primary cilia via membrane microdomains and a targeting motifJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  20:2570-2580. 2009
    2009 Tetherin-Driven Adaptation of Vpu and Nef Function and the Evolution of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1 StrainsCell Host and Microbe.  6:409-421. 2009
    2009 P04-12. Characterization of leukopak PBMC phenotypes and biotypes for optimal performance in HIV-1 neutralization assaysRetrovirology.  6. 2009
    2009 P04-23. HIV-1 neutralization is impacted by the PBMC donor used for both virus growth and target cells, and the effects are neutralization reagent-specificRetrovirology.  6. 2009
    2009 P05-04. Neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization with liposomal gp41 peptide simultaneously bind to both the 2F5 or 4E10 epitope and lipid epitopesRetrovirology.  6. 2009
    2009 P20-15. Evaluation of HIV-1 subtype B acute envelope-expressing infectious molecular clonesRetrovirology.  6. 2009
    2009 S01-04 OA. Phenotypic analyses of CD8+ T cells that mediate virus inhibition from HIV-1 vaccinees and HIV-1+ virus controllersRetrovirology.  6. 2009
    2009 Clinical and molecular characterization of S1118F-CFTRPediatric pulmonology. Supplement.  44:1003-1009. 2009
    2009 New virologic reagents for neutralizing antibody assaysCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS.  4:418-425. 2009
    2009 Genetic identity, biological phenotype, and evolutionary pathways of transmitted/founder viruses in acute and early HIV-1 infectionJournal of Experimental Medicine.  206:1273-1289. 2009
    2009 COP9-associated CSN5 regulates exosomal protein deubiquitination and sortingAmerican Journal of Pathology.  174:1415-1425. 2009
    2009 Neutralizing antibodies induced by liposomal HIV-1 glycoprotein 41 peptide simultaneously bind to both the 2F5 or 4E10 epitope and lipid epitopes.AIDS.  23:2069-2077. 2009
    2008 Calmodulin binding to cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein modulates Fas-induced signallingBiochemical Journal.  412:459-468. 2008
    2008 Oxidative stress induces vascular calcification through modulation of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 by AKT signalingJournal of Biological Chemistry.  283:15319-15327. 2008
    2007 Immunological control of chronic HIV-1 infection: HLA-mediated immune function and viral evolution in adolescentsAIDS.  21:2387-2397. 2007
    2007 Neural progenitor cell transplantation and imaging in a large animal modelNeuroscience Research.  59:327-340. 2007
    2007 HIV-1 Protease Dimer Interface Mutations that Compensate for Viral Reverse Transcriptase Instability in Infectious VirionsJournal of Molecular Biology.  372:369-381. 2007
    2007 Breast cancer metastasis to bone: Evaluation of bioluminescent imaging and microSPECT/CT for detecting bone metastasis in immunodeficient miceClinical and Experimental Metastasis.  24:389-401. 2007
    2007 Cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interact with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and inhibit proviral DNA formationJournal of Virology.  81:7238-7248. 2007
    2007 Expansion of spleen myeloid suppressor cells represses NK cell cytotoxicity in tumor-bearing hostBlood.  109:4336-4342. 2007
    2007 Requirement of KISS1 secretion for multiple organ metastasis suppression and maintenance of tumor dormancy 2007
    2007 Analysis of Amino Acids in the β7-β8 Loop of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase for their Role in Virus ReplicationJournal of Molecular Biology.  365:1368-1378. 2007
    2006 Tethering KSRP, a decay-promoting AU-rich element-binding protein, to mRNAs elicits mRNA decayMolecular and Cellular Biology.  26:3695-3706. 2006
    2006 Kinetics of metastatic breast cancer cell trafficking in boneClinical Cancer Research.  12:1431-1440. 2006
    2006 Murine mammary carcinoma exosomes promote tumor growth by suppression of NK cell functionJournal of Immunology.  176:1375-1385. 2006
    2005 Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase subunit structure/function in the context of infectious virions and human target cellsAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.  49:3762-3769. 2005
    2005 Identification of amino acid residues in the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase tryptophan-repeat motif that are required for subunit interaction using infectious virionsJournal of Molecular Biology.  349:673-684. 2005
    2004 Clonal selection for transcriptionally active viral oncogenes during progression to cancerJournal of Virology.  78:11172-11186. 2004
    2004 Evidence that stable retroviral transduction and cell survival following DNA integration depend on components of the nonhomologous end joining repair pathwayJournal of Virology.  78:8573-8581. 2004
    2004 Subunit-specific analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase in vivoJournal of Virology.  78:7089-7096. 2004
    2003 Replication of chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) containing HIV-2 integrase (IN): Naturally selected mutations in IN augment DNA synthesisJournal of Virology.  77:11050-11059. 2003
    2003 Erratum: Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1 (Nature (2003) 422 (307-312))Nature.  423:197. 2003
    2003 Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1Nature.  422:307-312. 2003
    2003 Production of trans-lentiviral vector with predictable safety.Methods in Molecular Medicine.  76:449-465. 2003
    2002 Emergence of resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in patients receiving fusion inhibitor (T-20) monotherapyAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.  46:1896-1905. 2002
    2002 The promoter of the human proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene is not sufficient for cell cycle-dependent regulation in organotypic cultures of keratinocytesJournal of Biological Chemistry.  277:17271-17280. 2002
    2002 The conformation of the mature dimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA genome requires packaging of pol proteinJournal of Virology.  76:4331-4340. 2002
    2002 Primary intestinal epithelial cells selectively transfer R5 HIV-1 to CCR5+ cellsNature Medicine.  8:150-156. 2002
    2001 Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase protein augments viral DNA synthesis in infected cellsJournal of Virology.  75:11365-11372. 2001
    2001 Safety considerations in vector developmentSomatic Cell and Molecular Genetics.  26:147-158. 2001
    2001 Inhibition of HIV-1 virion production by a transdominant mutant of integrase interactor 1Nature Medicine.  7:920-926. 2001
    2001 Analysis of lenti- and trans-lentiviral vector genetic recombination.Developments in Biologicals.  106. 2001
    2000 Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 containing HERV-K proteaseAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  16:1973-1980. 2000
    2000 Sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to the fusion inhibitor T-20 is modulated by coreceptor specificity defined by the V3 loop of gp120Journal of Virology.  74:8358-8367. 2000
    2000 Development of a novel trans-lentiviral vector that affords predictable safetyMolecular Therapy.  2:47-55. 2000
    2000 Lentiviral vector transduction of hematopoietic stem cells that mediate long-term reconstitution of lethally irradiated miceStem Cells.  18:352-359. 2000
    1999 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase protein promotes reverse transcription through specific interactions with the nucleoprotein reverse transcription complexJournal of Virology.  73:2126-2135. 1999
    1999 Targeting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 integrase protein into HIV type 1Journal of Virology.  73:8831-8836. 1999
    1998 The cysteine-cysteine family of chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β induce trypanocidal activity in human macrophages via nitric oxideInfection and Immunity.  66:4690-4695. 1998
    1997 Functional RT and IN incorporated into HIV-1 particles independently of the Gag/Pol precursor protein 1997
    1997 Incorporation of functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase into virions independent of the Gag-Pol precursor proteinJournal of Virology.  71:7704-7710. 1997
    1996 Proteolytic activity of human immunodeficiency virus Vpr-and Vpx-protease fusion proteinsVirology.  219:307-313. 1996
    1996 Inhibition of human and simian immunodeficiency virus protease function by targeting Vpx-protease-mutant fusion protein into viral particlesJournal of Virology.  70:3378-3384. 1996
    1995 Assessment of antiretroviral therapy by plasma viral load testing: Standard and ICD HIV-1 p24 antigen and viral RNA (QC-PCR) assays compared 1995
    1995 Polyclonal Rabbit Antisera that Detect the Vpr Protein of SIVSM and SIVMAC on Immunoblots of Purified VirionsAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  11:405-408. 1995
    1995 Targeting foreign proteins to human immunodeficiency virus particles via fusion with Vpr and VpxJournal of Virology.  69:3389-3398. 1995
    1995 The Vif protein of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is packaged into virions and associates with viral core structuresJournal of Virology.  69:7630-7638. 1995
    1995 Viral protein XCurrent Topics in Microbiology and Immunology.  193:121-132. 1995
    1994 Optimization of quantitative culture assay for human immunodeficiency virus from plasma. Plasma Viremia Group Laboratories of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases).Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  32:3064-3067. 1994
    1994 Localization of the Vpx packaging signal within the C terminus of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Gag precursor proteinJournal of Virology.  68:6161-6169. 1994
    1994 Optimization of quantitative culture assay for human immunodeficiency virus from plasmaJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  32:3064-3067. 1994
    1993 A Short-Term Clinical Evaluation of L-697,661, a Non-Nucleoside Inhibitor of HIV-1 Reverse TranscriptaseNew England Journal of Medicine.  329:1065-1072. 1993
    1993 Viral dynamics in primary HIV-1 infection 1993
    1993 Determination of plasma viral load in HIV-1 infection by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reactionAIDS.  7. 1993
    1993 High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCRScience.  259:1749-1754. 1993
    1993 Intracellular transport and virion incorporation of vpx requires interaction with other virus type-specific componentsVirology.  193:222-233. 1993
    1993 Viral dynamics in primary HIV-1 infection [21] 1993
    1992 In vitro and in vivo anti-viral activity of a purified fraction of bovine lecithin against Herpes simplex virusMedical science research.  20:441-443. 1992
    1991 High titers of cytopathic virus in plasma of patients with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infectionNew England Journal of Medicine.  324:954-960. 1991
    1991 Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 vpx protein augments viral infectivityVirology.  184:197-209. 1991
    1991 Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cloned directly from uncultured human brain tissue: Identification of replication-competent and -defective viral genomesJournal of Virology.  65:3973-3985. 1991
    1990 Molecular characterization of an attenuated human immunodeficiency virus type 2 isolateJournal of Virology.  64:890-901. 1990
    1988 Enhanced in vitro reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus from neural and peripheral tissues with hexamethylenebisacetamideArchives of Virology.  99:57-65. 1988
    1988 Antibody to herpes simplex virus (Hsv) icp-35 proteins after hsv challenge of animals immunized with hsv subunit vaccinesJournal of Infectious Diseases.  157:1178-1186. 1988
    1988 Enhanced in vitro reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 from latency infected guinea-pig neural tissues by 5-azacytidineJournal of General Virology.  69:1079-1083. 1988
    1988 Identification of a novel retroviral gene unique to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(MAC)Journal of Virology.  62:3501-3505. 1988
    1988 West African HIV-2-related human retrovirus with attenuated cytopathicityScience.  240:1525-1529. 1988
    1987 Antibody Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein d: Effects of Acyclovir and Relation to RecurrenceJournal of Infectious Diseases.  156:423-429. 1987
    1986 Antibody response, recurrence patterns and subsequent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) re-infection following initial HSV-2 infection of guinea-pigs: Effects of acyclovirJournal of General Virology.  67:1601-1612. 1986
    1985 Further studies on in vitro suppression of rotavirus using a purified fraction of bovine lecithinIRCS Medical Science.  13:997-998. 1985
    1985 In vitro suppression of rotavirus replication using a purified fraction of bovine lecithinIRCS Medical Science.  13:595-596. 1985
    1984 Lysosomal stimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages by purified bovine lecithinIRCS Medical Science.  12:206-207. 1984
    1983 The effect of phosphatidylcholine on the reticuloendothelial system, as determined by carbon clearance assayIRCS Medical Science.  11:389. 1983

    Research Overview

  • Dr. Kappes' research is focused on studying the molecular biology of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and the development of lentiviral-based vectors for gene delivery. These studies are helping to understand how infectious virions are formed and how the viral enzymes [reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN)], function during the early stages of the virus life cycle. By using virion associated HIV accessory proteins (Vpr and Vpx), Dr. Kappes has developed an approach for incorporating functional RT and IN into virions independently of the normal Gag-Pol packaging pathway. This has uncoupled the RT and IN function from Gag-Pol function and enabled, for the first time, a detailed molecular analysis of reverse transcription and integration in the context of replicating virus (in vivo). Based on the principles of incorporating RT and IN in trans, Dr. Kappes has developed a new generation of HIV/lentiviral-based vectors for gene therapy. Lentiviral vectors appear to be well suited for gene therapy since they can transduce nondividing (somatic) cells. By separating the expression of RT and IN from the other vector components it is possible to produce lentiviral vectors with minimal risk of recombination and the generation of replication competent virus.
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology, 1985
  • Full Name

  • John Kappes