• Dr. Hillegass is an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Cardiovascular Division and holds a secondary appointment as an Assistant Professor of Biostatistics. In addition to general and invasive cardiovascular practice, Dr. Hillegass is a clinical investigator. Using research methods ranging from prospective randomized trials to secondary data-analyses, his applied research includes antithrombotic therapies, acute coronary syndromes, peripheral vascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases in diabetics, and interventional therapies. His basic statistical methods research concerns indirect treatment comparison methods. He has focused on quantitative methods to verify the assumptions and validity of indirect treatment comparison methods such as network meta-analysis. He has developed methods to improve the robustness of indirect treatment effect estimators. His additional methodological areas of interest and research include individual patient data meta-analysis, retrospective harmonization of covariates and endpoints across studies & databases, adaptive clinical trial designs, simulated clinical trials, bioinformatics for precision medicine, and cost-effectiveness analyses.

    Dr. Hillegass has mentored undergraduate, graduate, medical, and post-graduate trainees in multiple clinical research projects yielding peer-reviewed publications.

    Dr. Hillegass studied molecular genetics and econometrics as an undergraduate at Yale. Medicine and clinical research design & application at Harvard Medical School, Harvard School Public Health, and Brigham and Womens Hospital. He trained in cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular research at Duke University Medical Center and the Duke Clinical Research Institute. His PhD training in biostatistics was at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2021 Diabetes and everolimus eluting bioresorbable poly-L-lactide vascular scaffolds for coronary artery disease: Dead-end or some path forward?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  98:721-722. 2021
    2021 Systemic toxicities of trastuzumab-emtansine predict tumor response in HER2+ metastatic breast cancerInternational Journal of Cancer.  149:909-916. 2021
    2021 Critical limb ischemia in the end stage renal disease patient: Some next stepsCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  98:308-309. 2021
    2021 A New Method to Optimize Stent Deployment by High-Definition Intravascular UltrasoundJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  33:E532-E539. 2021
    2021 Genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy for acute coronary syndrome percutaneous coronary intervention patients: A new standard of care?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  97:795-796. 2021
    2021 Antiplatelet therapy regimen and duration after percutaneous coronary intervention: Combining prediction scores with clinical judgmentCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  97:579-580. 2021
    2021 Brain injury in preterm infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis: clinical and bowel pathological correlatesPediatric Research2021
    2021 Everolimus eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds for infrapopliteal critical limb ischemia: Moving beyond grasping at metal strawsCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  97:150-151. 2021
    2021 The Association Between Neighborhood Social Vulnerability and COVID-19 Testing, Positivity, and Incidence in Alabama and LouisianaJournal of Community Health2021
    2020 Ticagrelor monotherapy: When is mono-antiplatelet therapy (MAPT) equivalent or better?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  96:1379-1380. 2020
    2020 Radial access and risk guided use of bivalirudin?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  96:1249-1250. 2020
    2020 Safety and efficacy of paclitaxel drug-coated balloon treatment of femoropopliteal claudicants: Data and analytic methods matterCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  96:1100-1101. 2020
    2020 A step toward physiologically guided chronic limb-threatening ischemia interventionCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  96:913-914. 2020
    2020 Cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19-guided antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention informed by real-world data 2020
    2020 Insulin-treated diabetes mellitus: An actionable risk factor and marker after percutaneous coronary interventionCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  96:309-310. 2020
    2020 A step forward in predicting anterograde crossing success for infrapopliteal chronic total occlusionsCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  95:756-757. 2020
    2020 Prior probability of significant obstructive arterial disease in the contralateral lower extremityCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  95:307-308. 2020
    2020 Underutilization of treatment for black adults with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension: JHS and the REGARDS studyHypertension.  1600-1607. 2020
    2019 Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Major Hemorrhage Among White and Black Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 2019
    2019 Clopidogrel pretreatment may reduce early acquired thrombocytopenia after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  94:818-819. 2019
    2019 Costs of postoperative delirium with transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Improved yet still presentCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  93:1137. 2019
    2019 Intravascular ultrasound of normal left main arteries: Insights for stent optimization and standardizationCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  93:239-240. 2019
    2018 Embolic stroke of undetermined source and patent foramen ovale closure: Practice insights from meta-analysis?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  92:1161-1162. 2018
    2018 “Expanding the frame” for valve-in-valve therapy in small bioprostheses: Encouraging signs for the road aheadCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  92:555-556. 2018
    2018 Surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe aortic stenosis: Equipoise remains a tenable assumptionCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  92:431-432. 2018
    2018 Patent foramen ovale closure for cryptogenic stroke: Effective, but only in select patientsCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  92:174-175. 2018
    2018 Long-term survival prospects of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Envisioning the futureCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  91:696. 2018
    2018 The promise of effective P2Y12 platelet receptor pretreatment: Not crushed yetCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  91:251-252. 2018
    2018 Multisite Investigation of Outcomes With Implementation of CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary InterventionJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.  11:181-191. 2018
    2018 Patient preference: An important emerging factor in operator access site selectionCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  91:25-26. 2018
    2017 Precision Medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham: Laying the Foundational Processes Through Implementation of Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet TherapyClinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.  102:493-501. 2017
    2017 Individualizing dual antiplatelet therapy duration: Prediction tools, genomics, and clinical judgmentCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  90:38. 2017
    2017 Length and pressure matter: Expediting evidence-based progress in femoropoliteal interventionCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  89:1257-1258. 2017
    2017 The many radial access learning curvesCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  89:865-866. 2017
    2017 SYNTAX Score and Long-Term Outcomes: The BARI-2D TrialJournal of the American College of Cardiology.  69:395-403. 2017
    2017 Anticoagulation control in patients with ventricular assist devicesASAIO Journal.  63:759-765. 2017
    2017 Unprotected Left Main Disease and Percutaneous Intervention: A Prototype for Precision MedicineCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  89:11-12. 2017
    2016 Radial Access Optimization in the Nascent Post-Adoption EraCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  88:1044-1045. 2016
    2016 Routine invasive evaluation in non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI-ACS): Optimizing bestCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  88:775-776. 2016
    2016 End of the bare metal stent era?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  88:49-50. 2016
    2016 Valvular Heart disease and acquired type 2A von willebrand syndrome: The "hemostatic" waring blender syndromeJAMA Cardiology.  1:205-206. 2016
    2016 Risk-guided use of the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudinCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  87:401-402. 2016
    2016 Insulin-treated diabetes mellitus: An important, actionable risk marker after coronary stentingCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  87:63-64. 2016
    2016 Risk guided use of the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin: Insights from recent trials and analysesJournal of thoracic disease.  8:E1034-E1040. 2016
    2015 Obesity and percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes: Beware the extremesCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  85:959-960. 2015
    2015 Percutaneous coronary intervention: Ever closer to real world silver bullets!?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  85:807-808. 2015
    2015 Can femoral access bleeding outcomes be improved?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  85:380-381. 2015
    2015 Diabetes is not sufficient justification for IIb/IIIa use in percutaneous coronary interventionCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  86:376-377. 2015
    2015 Optimal DAPT duration: Each in their own timeCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  85:41-42. 2015
    2015 Renal artery stenting: Patient selection post-CORALCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  86:310-311. 2015
    2015 Response to letter regarding article, "the learning curve for transradial percutaneous coronary intervention among operators in the United States: A study from the national cardiovascular data registry"Circulation.  131:e358. 2015
    2015 Sex, prescribing practices and guideline recommended, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol targets at baseline in the BARI 2D trialInternational Journal of Endocrinology.  2015. 2015
    2014 The association between inflammatory markers, serum lipids and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritisPostgraduate Medical Journal.  90:722-729. 2014
    2014 The learning curve for transradial percutaneous coronary intervention among operators in the united states: A study from the national cardiovascular data registryCirculation.  129:2277-2286. 2014
    2014 The association between inflammatory markers, serum lipids and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritisAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases.  73:1301-1308. 2014
    2013 Thromboaspiration and IIb/IIIa therapy in STEMI: Abciximab redux?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  82:612-613. 2013
    2013 Adoption of radial access and comparison of outcomes to femoral access in percutaneous coronary intervention an updated report from the national cardiovascular data registry (2007-2012)Circulation.  127:2295-2306. 2013
    2013 Stent paleology: Diabetic lessons from extinct stentsCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  81:1125-1126. 2013
    2013 Diabetes and everolimus-eluting stents: Good offense scores but defense wins tough gamesCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  81:766-767. 2013
    2012 Long-term outcomes of older diabetic patients after percutaneous coronary stenting in the United States: A report from the national cardiovascular data registry, 2004 to 2008Journal of the American College of Cardiology.  60:2280-2289. 2012
    2012 Saphenous vein grafts: Two substrates, two treatments?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  80:1137. 2012
    2012 Benefit of renal artery stenting: Is on-target therapy the observational bias?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  80:351. 2012
    2012 ACP Journal Club: 24- and 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting did not differ for clinical outcomes.Annals of Internal Medicine.  157:JC2-JC9. 2012
    2012 CommentaryAnnals of Internal Medicine.  157. 2012
    2012 Rotational atherectomy for heavily calcified unprotected left main disease: Proceed with cautionCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  80:221. 2012
    2012 Implicit rationing of percutaneous coronary intervention: The left main test caseCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  79:1117. 2012
    2012 Characteristics and long-term outcomes of percutaneous revascularization of unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis in the United States: A report from the national cardiovascular data registry, 2004 to 2008Journal of the American College of Cardiology.  59:648-654. 2012
    2011 Diabetes and percutaneous coronary intervention drug-eluting: Stents whenever feasibleCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  78:718-719. 2011
    2011 Quality assessment and improvement in interventional cardiology: A position statement of the society of cardiovascular angiography and interventions, Part II: Public reporting and risk adjustmentCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  78:493-502. 2011
    2011 Shock and age: The role of an early invasive strategyCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  78:512-513. 2011
    2011 Quality assessment and improvement in interventional cardiology: A position statement of the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, part 1: Standards for quality assessment and improvement in interventional cardiologyCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  77:927-935. 2011
    2011 A full toolbox fixes the roadblocksCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  77:759-760. 2011
    2011 ACP Journal Club. Review: Third-generation P2Y12 inhibitors reduce mortality after PCI more than clopidogrel.Annals of Internal Medicine.  154:JC3-JC6. 2011
    2011 DES in SVGs: Safe and at least short-term effectiveCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  77:356-357. 2011
    2011 Oral antiplatelet therapy in diabetes mellitus and the role of prasugrel: An overviewVascular Health and Risk Management.  7:445-459. 2011
    2010 High glycemic stenting menuCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  76:934-935. 2010
    2010 Health status after treatment for coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation 2 diabetes trialCirculation.  122:1690-1699. 2010
    2010 Drug-eluting or bare metal stents for diabetics: Clinical judgment still winsCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  76:482-483. 2010
    2010 The holy grail for DES: Does efficacy translate into real world effectiveness?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  76:381-382. 2010
    2010 Which DES for diabetics? Round 1: A draw. Round 2: Everolimus leading?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  76:58-59. 2010
    2010 Bifurcation stenting: A commitment to always kissCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  75:614-615. 2010
    2009 Treatment of Refractory Iatrogenic Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm with a Vascular Closure Device 2009
    2009 As goes the access, so goes the intervention?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  74:932-933. 2009
    2009 The modern axis of peri-procedural evilCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  74:56-57. 2009
    2009 ACP Journal Club. Prasugrel prevented ischemic events compared with clopidogrel in patients having PCI for STEMI.Annals of Internal Medicine.  150:JC6-J10. 2009
    2009 Prasugrel prevented ischemic events compared with clopidogrel in patients having PCI for STEMI: CommentaryAnnals of Internal Medicine.  150. 2009
    2009 Multivessel disease in diabetics: Does DES level the field?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  73:881-882. 2009
    2009 A third dimension to uncloud the funnel plot of operator qualityCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  73:595-596. 2009
    2009 Pretreatment with nitroprusside for microcirculatory protection in saphenous vein graft interventionsJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  21:34-39. 2009
    2009 Clinical Significance of Post-Procedural TIMI Flow in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary InterventionJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.  2:56-64. 2009
    2009 Length matters: outcomes of superficial femoral artery (SFA) endovascular interventions.Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  74:1096. 2009
    2008 Native vessel PCI in the diabetic: DES whenever feasibleCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  72:608-609. 2008
    2008 Vascular changes and black hole phenomenon after coronary brachytherapy: A pathologically distinct entityJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  20:560-562. 2008
    2008 The bone marrow and endovascular therapyCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  72:210-211. 2008
    2008 DES in saphenous bypass grafts: A treatment in vain?Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  72:21-22. 2008
    2007 Ruptured giant right coronary artery aneurysm percutaneously pluggedJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  19:139-141. 2007
    2007 First human case description of TandemHeart™-assisted high-risk percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty using bivalirudin anticoagulationJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  19. 2007
    2006 Severe, diffuse coronary artery spasm after drug-eluting stent placementJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  18:584-592. 2006
    2005 CommentaryEvidence-based Cardiovascular Medicine.  9:70-71. 2005
    2005 Cypher drug-eluting stent treatment of tibioperoneal obstructive disease: A case reportCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  64:237-241. 2005
    2004 Results of intracoronary β-brachytherapy administered by 60 mm transfer device/radiation source train: A subgroup analysis from the RENO registryJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  16:363-367. 2004
    2004 Long-Term Follow-Up of Brachytherapy for Treatment of Allograft In-Stent RestenosisCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.  61:217-221. 2004
    2003 Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis in a Gastroepiploic Artery Coronary Bypass Graft with BrachytherapyJournal of Invasive Cardiology.  15:677-680. 2003
    2003 Relationship between heparin anticoagulation and clinical outcomes in coronary stent intervention: Observations from the ESPRIT trialJournal of the American College of Cardiology.  41:386-393. 2003
    2002 How best to use GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors in suspected acute coronary syndromes targeting high-risk patients 2002
    2002 Therapeutic angiogenesis with recombinant fibroblast growth factor-2 for intermittent claudication (the TRAFFIC study): A randomised trial 2002
    2001 Does the presence of thrombus seen on a coronary angiogram affect the outcome after percutaneous coronary angioplasty? An angiographic trials pool data experienceJournal of the American College of Cardiology.  38:624-630. 2001
    2001 Treatment of no-reflow and impaired flow with the nitric oxide donor nitroprusside following percutaneous coronary interventions: Initial human clinical experienceJournal of the American College of Cardiology.  37:1335-1343. 2001
    2001 Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor therapy in percutaneous coronary intervention and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Estimating the economic implicationsPharmacoEconomics.  19:41-55. 2001
    1998 Combining thrombolysis with the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor lamifiban: Results of the platelet aggregation receptor antagonist dose investigation and reperfusion gain in myocardial infarction (PARADIGM) trialJournal of the American College of Cardiology.  32:2003-2010. 1998
    1998 Abciximab therapy in percutaneous intervention: economic issues in the United States.European Heart Journal.  19 Suppl D:D52-D58. 1998
    1998 Stent procedure complicated by thrombus formation distal to the lesion within a muscle bridgeCatheterization and cardiovascular diagnosis.  43:73-76. 1998
    1996 Relation between activated clotting time during angioplasty and abrupt closureCirculation.  93:667-671. 1996
    1996 The Economics of IIb/IIIa Therapy.Journal of Invasive Cardiology.  8 Suppl B:30B-33B. 1996


    Year Title Altmetric
    2005 Overview, strengths, and limitations of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.  17-33. 2005

    Research Overview

  • Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies.
    Coronary artery disease.
    Peripheral vascular disease.
    Diabetes and coronary artery disease.
    Statistical methods for indirect treatment comparisons.
  • Principal Investigator On

    Education And Training

  • Brigham & Women's Hospital, Residency
  • Duke University Medical Center, Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • Full Name

  • William Hillegass