• Dr. Orihuela obtained his Bachelor of Science Degree from Baylor University in 1996. He subsequently earned his PhD in Microbiology and Immunology from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston where he was a Kempner Scholar. From 2001 to 2005, Dr. Orihuela completed his postdoctoral research training in the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis TN. He returned to Texas in 2005, as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. While at San Antonio, Dr. Orihuela was promoted with tenure to Associate Professor and recipient of the Presidential Junior Research Scholar Award, Distinguished Hispanic Faculty Award from the Graduate School, and Glenn Award for Research in Biological Mechanisms of Aging. In Fall of 2015 Dr. Orihuela joined the Department of Microbiology at UAB where he is now Vice-Chair of Faculty Development. Dr. Orihuela currently is a member of the Host Interactions with Bacterial Pathogens Study Section for the NIH, Associate Editor for the journals PLoS Pathogens and Infection and Immunity, and editor of a recent book on the molecular mechanisms of Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenesis.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2020 Omega-3 fatty acids in contrast to omega-6 protect against pneumococcal pneumonia 2020
    2020 Can animal models really teach us anything about pneumonia? Pro 2020
    2019 Opening the OPK assay gatekeeper: Harnessing multi-modal protection by pneumococcal vaccines 2019
    2019 Interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus Generates ·OH Radicals That Rapidly Kill Staphylococcus aureus Strains 2019
    2019 In Vitro Adhesion, Invasion, and Transcytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Host Cells 2019
    2019 Necroptotic cell death promotes adaptive immunity against colonizing pneumococci 2019
    2018 Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins Promote the Activation of Caspases in Parallel to Necroptosis to Enhance Alarmin Release and Inflammation during Pneumonia 2018
    2018 Severity and properties of cardiac damage caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are strain dependent 2018
    2018 Future research directions in pneumonia 2018
    2018 NAD+ Depletion Triggers Macrophage Necroptosis, a Cell Death Pathway Exploited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis 2018
    2018 Bacterial-host interactions: Physiology and pathophysiology of respiratory infection 2018
    2018 Cell invasion and pyruvate oxidase-derived H 2 O 2 are critical for Streptococcus pneumoniae-mediated cardiomyocyte killing 2018
    2017 Severe pneumococcal pneumonia causes acute cardiac toxicity and subsequent cardiac remodeling 2017
    2017 Streptococcus pneumoniae in the heart subvert the host response through biofilm-mediated resident macrophage killing 2017
    2017 The pneumococcal serotype 15C capsule is partially O-acetylated and allows for limited evasion of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-elicited anti-serotype 15B antibodies 2017
    2017 High endocan levels are associated with the need for mechanical ventilation among patients with severe sepsis 2017
    2017 Position of O-acetylation within the capsular repeat unit impacts the biological properties of pneumococcal serotypes 33A and 33F 2017
    2017 Transcriptional organization of pneumococcal psrP-secY2A2 and impact of GtfA and GtfB deletion on PsrP-associated virulence properties 2017
    2017 Pore-forming toxin-mediated ion dysregulation leads to death receptor-independent necroptosis of lung epithelial cells during bacterial pneumonia 2017
    2017 Killing of Serratia marcescens biofilms with chloramphenicol 2017
    2017 YopE specific CD8+ T cells provide protection against systemic and mucosal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection 2017
    2016 Endothelial adhesion molecules and multiple organ failure in patients with severe sepsis 2016
    2016 A non-human primate model of severe pneumococcal pneumonia 2016
    2016 CD8+ T cells specific to a single Yersinia pseudotuberculosis epitope restrict bacterial replication in the liver but fail to provide sterilizing immunity 2016
    2016 Infiltrated macrophages die of pneumolysin-mediated necroptosis following pneumococcal myocardial invasion 2016
    2016 Senescent Cells Contribute to the Physiological Remodeling of Aged Lungs 2016
    2016 Anatomical site-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence determinants. 2016
    2016 Neuraminidase A-exposed galactose promotes Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation during colonization 2016
    2015 Chronic mTOR inhibition in mice with rapamycin alters T, B, myeloid, and innate lymphoid cells and gut flora and prolongs life of immune-deficient mice 2015
    2015 Visualization of streptococcus pneumoniae within cardiac microlesions and subsequent cardiac remodeling 2015
    2015 Cardiotoxicity during invasive pneumococcal disease 2015
    2015 Chromogranin A levels and mortality in patients with severe sepsis 2015
    2015 Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Macrophage Necroptosis during Acute Bacterial Pneumonia 2015
    2015 Requirement for Serratia marcescens cytolysin in a murine model of hemorrhagic pneumonia 2015
    2014 Elevated A20 contributes to age-dependent macrophage dysfunction in the lungs 2014
    2014 Pneumococci in biofilms are non-invasive: Implications on nasopharyngeal colonization 2014
    2014 Streptococcus pneumoniae Translocates into the Myocardium and Forms Unique Microlesions That Disrupt Cardiac Function 2014
    2013 Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation is strain dependent, multifactorial, and associated with reduced invasiveness and immunoreactivity during colonization 2013
    2013 Interactions between Blood-Borne Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Blood-Brain Barrier Preceding Meningitis 2013
    2012 Enteric-delivered rapamycin enhances resistance of aged mice to pneumococcal pneumonia through reduced cellular senescence 2012
    2012 A role for glycosylated serine-rich repeat proteins in Gram-positive bacterial pathogenesis 2012
    2012 Prevalence and clonal distribution of pcpA, psrP and pilus-1 among pediatric isolates of streptococcus pneumoniae 2012
    2012 Age-related defects in TLR2 signaling diminish the cytokine response by alveolar macrophages during murine pneumococcal pneumonia 2012
    2012 Impact of oral simvastatin therapy on acute lung injury in mice during pneumococcal pneumonia 2012
    2012 Pneumococcal gene complex involved in resistance to extracellular oxidative stress 2012
    2012 Future perspective on host-pathogen interactions during bacterial biofilm formation within the nasopharynx 2012
    2011 Streptococcus pneumoniae in biofilms are unable to cause invasive disease due to altered virulence determinant production 2011
    2011 Biofilm and planktonic pneumococci demonstrate disparate immunoreactivity to human convalescent sera 2011
    2011 Changes in capsular serotype alter the surface exposure of pneumococcal adhesins and impact virulence 2011
    2011 Cellular senescence increases expression of bacterial ligands in the lungs and is positively correlated with increased susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia 2011
    2011 Incidence of cardiovascular events after hospital admission for pneumonia 2011
    2011 Rapamycin, but not resveratrol or simvastatin, extends life span of genetically heterogeneous mice 2011
    2011 Dysregulated inflammation as a risk factor for pneumonia in the elderly 2011
    2011 Virulence Factors Involved in Passage of Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida Through an Air-Blood Barrier Model 2011
    2010 PsrP, a protective pneumococcal antigen, is highly prevalent in children with pneumonia and is strongly associated with clonal type 2010
    2010 Pneumococci: Immunology of the innate host response 2010
    2010 The pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein is an intraspecies bacterial adhesin that promotes bacterial aggregation in Vivo and in biofilms 2010
    2010 Early biofilm formation on microtiter plates is not correlated with the invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae 2010
    2010 Statins protect against fulminant pneumococcal infection and cytolysin toxicity in a mouse model of sickle cell disease 2010
    2010 Pneumococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules targeting of the extracellular matrix 2010
    2009 Eμ-BCL10 mice exhibit constitutive activation of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways generating marginal zone (MZ) B-cell expansion as a precursor to splenic MZ lymphoma 2009
    2009 Role played by psrP-secY2A2 (accessory region 34) in the invasive disease potential of streptococcus pneumoniae 2009
    2009 Age-associated inflammation and Toll-like receptor dysfunction prime the lungs for pneumococcal pneumonia 2009
    2009 The Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesin PsrP binds to Keratin 10 on lung cells 2009
    2009 Laminin receptor initiates bacterial contact with the blood brain barrier in experimental meningitis models 2009
    2008 Antibodies against PsrP, a novel Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesin, block adhesion and protect mice against pneumococcal challenge 2008
    2007 Assessment of molecular typing methods to determine invasiveness and to differentiate clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007
    2007 Regions of Diversity 8, 9 and 13 contribute to Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence 2007
    2007 Induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza 2007
    2006 Platelet-activating factor receptor and innate immunity: Uptake of gram-positive bacterial cell wall into host cells and cell-specific pathophysiology 2006
    2006 Identification of a candidate Streptococcus pneumoniae core genome and regions of diversity correlated with invasive pneumococcal disease 2006
    2006 Cell wall-mediated neuronal damage in early sepsis 2006
    2006 Erratum: β-arrestin 1 participates in platelet-activating factor receptor-mediated endocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Infection and Immunity (2005) 73, 12 (7827-7835)) 2006
    2006 Models of pneumococcal disease 2006
    2006 Multifunctional role of choline binding protein G in pneumococcal pathogenesis 2006
    2005 β-arrestin 1 participates in platelet-activating factor receptor-mediated endocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae 2005
    2005 Virulence in mice of pneumococcal clonal types with known invasive disease potential in humans 2005
    2005 Noninvasive monitoring of pneumococcal meningitis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in an experimental mouse model 2005
    2004 Tissue-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence factors to pathogenesis 2004
    2004 Microarray analysis of pneumococcal gene expression during invasive disease 2004
    2003 Organ-specific models of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease 2003
    2003 Defective developmental and function of Bcl10-deficient follicular, marginal zone and B1 B cells 2003
    2001 Streptococcus pneumoniae PstS production is phosphate responsive and enhanced during growth in the murine peritoneal cavity 2001
    2001 Identification and characterization of an in vivo regulated D15/Oma87 homologue in Shigella flexneri using differential display polymerase chain reaction 2001
    2000 Peritoneal culture alters Streptococcus pneumoniae protein profiles and virulence properties 2000
    1997 Poor man's dot-blot apparatus 1997


    Year Title Altmetric
    2015 Streptococcus Pneumoniae: Molecular Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Interactions 2015


    Year Title Altmetric
    2019 Streptococcus pneumoniae: Invasion and inflammation 2019
    2015 Mechanisms of Predisposition to Pneumonia: Infants, the Elderly, and Viral Infections.  363-382. 2015
    2015 Bacterial Interactions with Mucosal Epithelial Cells.  955-973. 2015
    2015 Altered phenotypes of biofilm and planktonic pneumococci modulate the host response within the nasopharynx and middle ear 2015
    2008 Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease.  53-68. 2008
    2005 Bacterial interactions with mucosal epithelial cells.  753-767. 2005

    Research Overview

  • Dr. Orihuela's research focus has been the host-pathogen interactions that underlie development of invasive pneumococcal disease. Most recently this includes examining the role of necroptosis (i.e. a pro-inflammatory cell death program) on pulmonary injury during bacterial infection, exploring the molecular basis of cardiac invasion during severe Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, and dissecting how the toxin pneumolysin kills lung cell and cardiomyocytes. His laboratory routinely uses knockout mice, isogenic deletion and complemented mutants of S. pneumoniae, “omic” technologies (e.g. genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic), therapeutic drug treatments, CRISPR/Cas9 gene edited cell lines, and fluorescent and electron microscopy.
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiological Sciences and Immunology, University of Texas System : Medical Branch 2001
  • Bachelor of Science or Mathematics in Biology, Baylor University 1996
  • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Infectious Diseases, Postdoctoral Fellowship 2005
  • Full Name

  • Carlos Orihuela