Positions

Overview

  • Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH, FACS is the chairman of the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Department of Ophthalmology and Chief Medical Officer for the Callahan Eye Hospital. After residency at UAB he completed a fellowship in neuro-ophthalmology at the Wilmer Eye Institute and was a Heed Glaucoma Fellow at the Hamilton Glaucoma Center at the University of California, San Diego. He joined the UAB faculty and founded the Department’s Glaucoma Service in 1999. Dr. Girkin has authored or coauthored over 160 journal articles and his research lab has been supported by Research to Prevent Blindness, Glaucoma Research Foundation, EyeSight Foundation of Alabama, the Center for Disease Control and the National Eye Institute. This research explores the mechanisms underlying the greater predilection to develop glaucomatous injury in individuals of African ancestry. Related hypothesis are explored through patient-oriented research, including morphometric and biomechanical studies of the lamina cribrosa and posterior sclera utilizing post-mortem human donor tissues along with in vivo imaging of the lamina cribrosa in the NEI-sponsored African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). His honors include being selected to the “Best Doctors in America” yearly from 2003 to 2016, the AAO Senior Achievement Award, two American Glaucoma Society Clinician-Scientist Awards, the Research to Prevent Blindness Clinician-Scientist Award, the EyeSight Foundation of Alabama Eminent Scholar Award and the Ronald Lowe Medal.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2019 OCT-Detected Optic Nerve Head Neural Canal Direction, Obliqueness, and Minimum Cross-Sectional Area in Healthy EyesCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  208:185-205. 2019
    2019 Association of Genetic Variants with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma among Individuals with African AncestryJournal of the American Medical Association.  322:1682-1691. 2019
    2019 Cyclic Pattern of Intraocular Pressure (IOP) and Transient IOP Fluctuations in Nonhuman Primates Measured with Continuous Wireless TelemetrySouthern Online Journal of Nursing Research (SOJNR).  44:1244-1252. 2019
    2019 Racial Differences in the Association of Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth and Glaucoma Severity in the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  60:4496-4502. 2019
    2019 Effect of Anesthesia on Intraocular Pressure Measured With Continuous Wireless Telemetry in Nonhuman PrimatesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  60:3830-3834. 2019
    2019 Glaucoma Patient Knowledge, Perceptions, and Predispositions for TelemedicineJournal of Glaucoma.  28:481-486. 2019
    2019 Transient intraocular pressure fluctuations: Source, magnitude, frequency, and associated mechanical energyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  60:2572-2582. 2019
    2019 Racioethnic differences in the biomechanical response of the lamina cribrosaOperative Techniques in Orthopaedics.  88:131-140. 2019
    2019 Factors influencing optical coherence tomography peripapillary choroidal thickness: A multicenter studyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  60:795-806. 2019
    2019 Association of severity of primary open-angle glaucoma with serum vitamin D levels in patients of African descentMolecular Vision.  25:438-445. 2019
    2019 Differential Effects of Aging in the Macular Retinal Layers, Neuroretinal Rim, and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber LayerOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology2019
    2019 Genetic Architecture of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Individuals of African Descent: The African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study IIIOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  126:38-48. 2019
    2019 Specificity of various cluster criteria used for the detection of glaucomatous visual field abnormalitiesNature Reviews Neurology2019
    2019 The African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) III: Contribution of Genotype to Glaucoma Phenotype in African Americans: Study Design and Baseline DataOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  126:156-170. 2019
    2019 The Magnitude of Intraocular Pressure Elevation Associated with Eye RubbingOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  126:171-172. 2019
    2018 Compliance with primary open-angle glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma suspect preferred practice patterns in a retail-based eye clinicJournal of Glaucoma.  27:1068-1072. 2018
    2018 In vivo optic nerve head mechanical response to intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure: imaging protocol and quantification methodScientific Reports.  8. 2018
    2018 Performance of Deep Learning Architectures and Transfer Learning for Detecting Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy in Fundus PhotographsScientific Reports.  8. 2018
    2018 Racial Differences in Rate of Change of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography–Measured Minimum Rim Width and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer ThicknessCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  196:154-164. 2018
    2018 Genome-wide association study of primary open-angle glaucoma in continental and admixed African populationsHuman Genetics.  137:847-862. 2018
    2018 IOP, IOP transient impulse, ocular perfusion pressure, and mean arterial pressure relationships in nonhuman primates instrumented with telemetryInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  59:4496-4505. 2018
    2018 Noninvasive in vivo characterization of erythrocyte motion in human retinal capillaries using high-speed adaptive optics near-confocal imagingJournal of Investigative Medicine.  9:3653-3677. 2018
    2018 Automated Beta Zone Parapapillary Area Measurement to Differentiate Between Healthy and Glaucoma EyesCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  191:140-148. 2018
    2018 A novel tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) model of glaucomaInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  59:3136-3143. 2018
    2018 Protruded retinal layers within the optic nerve head neuroretinal rimPhilosophy in the Contemporary World.  96:e493-e502. 2018
    2018 Patient satisfaction with care in an urban tertiary referral academic glaucoma clinic in the usPatient Preference and Adherence.  12:775-781. 2018
    2018 Factors influencing central lamina cribrosa depth: A multicenter studyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  59:2357-2370. 2018
    2018 Detection of glaucoma progression in individuals of African descent compared with those of European descentJAMA Ophthalmology.  136:329-335. 2018
    2018 Baseline 24-2 Central Visual Field Damage Is Predictive of Global Progressive Field LossCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  187:92-98. 2018
    2018 Imaging the deep optic nerve: developing mechanistic biomarkers for glaucomaThoracic Surgery Clinics.  46:111-113. 2018
    2018 Is nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy due to choroidal compression of the prelaminar neurovascular compartment of the optic nerve head?Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  38:1-3. 2018
    2018 A Longitudinal Analysis of Peripapillary Choroidal Thinning in Healthy and Glaucoma SubjectsCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  186:89-95. 2018
    2018 Clinicopathologic Correlation of Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Treated Type 3 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular DegenerationOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  125:276-287. 2018
    2017 Applying RE-AIM to evaluate two community-based programs designed to improve access to eye care for those at high-risk for glaucomaEvaluation and Program Planning.  65:40-46. 2017
    2017 Higher contrast requirement for letter recognition and macular RGC+ layer thinning in glaucoma patients and older adultsInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  58:6221-6231. 2017
    2017 The magnitude and time course of IOP change in response to body position change in nonhuman primates measured using continuous IOP telemetryInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  58:6232-6240. 2017
    2017 Slow reading in glaucoma: Is it due to the shrinking visual span in central vision?Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  58:5810-5818. 2017
    2017 24-2 Visual Fields Miss Central Defects Shown on 10-2 Tests in Glaucoma Suspects, Ocular Hypertensives, and Early GlaucomaOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  124:1449-1456. 2017
    2017 Rates of Local Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning before and after Disc Hemorrhage in GlaucomaOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  124:1403-1411. 2017
    2017 Racioethnic differences in human posterior scleral and optic nerve stump deformationInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  58:4235-4246. 2017
    2017 Variation in the three-dimensional histomorphometry of the normal human optic nerve head with age and race: Lamina cribrosa and peripapillary scleral thickness and positionInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  58:3759-3769. 2017
    2017 The Magnitude of Hypotony and Time Course of Intraocular Pressure Recovery Following Anterior Chamber Cannulation in Nonhuman PrimatesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  58:3225-3230. 2017
    2017 β-Zone parapapillary atrophy and rates of glaucomatous visual field progression African descent and glaucoma evaluation studyJAMA Ophthalmology.  135:617-623. 2017
    2017 Lamina cribrosa in glaucomaBioprocessing Journal.  28:113-119. 2017
    2017 Comparison of Bruch's Membrane Opening Minimum Rim Width Among Those With Normal Ocular Health by RaceCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  174:113-118. 2017
    2016 Association between Intraocular Pressure and Rates of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Loss Measured by Optical Coherence TomographyOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  123:2058-2065. 2016
    2016 Measuring mean cup depth in the optic nerve headActa Botanica Gallica.  13:693-700. 2016
    2016 Peripapillary pachychoroid in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  57:4679-4685. 2016
    2016 Highly efficient delivery of adeno-associated viral vectors to the primate retinaHuman Gene Therapy.  27:580-597. 2016
    2016 Macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer thickness in glaucomatous eyes with localized retinal nerve fiber layer defectsPLoS ONE.  11. 2016
    2016 African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) Racial Differences in Optic Disc Hemorrhage and Beta-Zone Parapapillary AtrophyOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  123:1476-1483. 2016
    2016 Structural change can be detected in advanced-glaucoma eyesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  57:511-518. 2016
    2016 Displacement of the lamina cribrosa in response to acute intraocular pressure elevation in normal individuals of African and European descentInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  3331-3339. 2016
    2016 Unsupervised Gaussian mixture-model with expectation maximization for detecting glaucomatous progression in standard automated perimetry visual fieldsTranslational Vision Science & Technology.  5. 2016
    2016 Rate and pattern of rim area loss in healthy and progressing glaucoma eyesOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  123:760-770. 2016
    2016 Feasibility, Patient Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Culturally Informed, Health Promotion Program to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence among African Americans: " G laucoma Management O ptimism for A frican Americans L iving with Glaucoma" (GOAL)Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research (SOJNR).  41:50-58. 2016
    2016 Diagnostic Accuracy of the Spectralis and Cirrus Reference Databases in Differentiating between Healthy and Early Glaucoma EyesOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  123:408-414. 2016
    2016 Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY): impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care.Patient Related Outcome Measures.  7:37-48. 2016
    2015 Detecting glaucomatous change in visual fields: Analysis with an optimization frameworkCentral nervous system trauma : journal of the American Paralysis Association.  58:96-103. 2015
    2015 High-magnitude and/or high-frequency mechanical strain promotes peripapillary scleral myofibroblast differentiationInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  56:7821-7830. 2015
    2015 Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and designInternational Journal for Equity in Health.  14. 2015
    2015 A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucomaHuman Molecular Genetics.  24:3880-3892. 2015
    2015 The African descent and glaucoma evaluation study (ADAGES): Predictors of visual field damage in glaucoma suspectsCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  159:777-787.e1. 2015
    2015 Biogeographic Ancestry in the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES): Association With Corneal and Optic Nerve StructureInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  56:2043-2049. 2015
    2015 Peripapillary choroidal thickness variation with age and race in normal eyesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  56:1872-1879. 2015
    2015 Binocular visual field impairment in glaucoma and at-fault motor vehicle collisionsJournal of Glaucoma.  24:138-143. 2015
    2015 Bruch's Membrane Opening Minimum Rim Width and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in a Normal White Population: A Multicenter StudyOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  122:1786-1794. 2015
    2015 Quantitative trait locus analysis of SIX1-SIX6 with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in individuals of European descentCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  160:123-130.e1. 2015
    2014 Variation of laminar depth in normal eyes with age and raceInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  55:8123-8133. 2014
    2014 Human scleral structural stiffness increases more rapidly with age in donors of African descent compared to donors of European descentInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  55:7189-7198. 2014
    2014 Age-and race-related differences in human scleral material propertiesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  55:8163-8172. 2014
    2014 Predicting progression of glaucoma from rates of frequency doubling technology perimetry changeOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  121:498-507. 2014
    2014 Glaucomatous patterns in Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry data identified by unsupervised machine learning classifiersPLoS ONE.  9. 2014
    2014 Age-related changes in human peripapillary scleral strainJournal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.  13:551-563. 2014
    2014 Evaluation of progressive neuroretinal rim loss as a surrogate end point for development of visual field loss in glaucomaOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  121:100-109. 2014
    2014 Glaucoma progression detection using structural retinal nerve fiber layer measurements and functional visual field pointsIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.  61:1143-1154. 2014
    2014 Learning from data: Recognizing glaucomatous defect patterns and detecting progression from visual field measurementsIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.  61:2112-2124. 2014
    2014 Material properties of the posterior human scleraJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials.  29:602-617. 2014
    2014 Outcomes of shunt tube coverage with glycerol preserved cornea versus pericardiumJournal of Glaucoma.  23:258-261. 2014
    2014 Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits as revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopyCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  158. 2014
    2014 Rates of retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in glaucoma suspect eyesOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  121:1350-1358. 2014
    2014 Variation of the axial location of bruch's membrane opening with age, choroidal thickness, and raceInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  55:2004-2009. 2014
    2013 Differences in the region- and depth-dependent microstructural organization in normal versus glaucomatous human posterior scleraeInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  54:7922-7932. 2013
    2013 A dual-modal retinal imaging system with adaptive opticsOptics Express.  21:29792-29807. 2013
    2013 The Relationship between Visual Field Index and Estimated Number of Retinal Ganglion Cells in GlaucomaPLoS ONE.  8. 2013
    2013 Investigation of known genetic risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma in two populations of African ancestryInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  54:6248-6254. 2013
    2013 Glaucoma medication adherence among African Americans: Program developmentOptometry and Vision Science.  90:883-897. 2013
    2013 The relationship between cup-to-disc ratio and estimated number of retinal ganglion cellsInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  54:3205-3214. 2013
    2013 Predicting progression in glaucoma suspects with longitudinal estimates of retinal ganglion cell countsInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  54:4174-4183. 2013
    2013 Association between rates of binocular visual field loss and vision-related quality of life in patients with glaucomaJAMA Ophthalmology.  131:486-494. 2013
    2013 Retinal ganglion cell count estimates associated with early development of visual field defects in glaucomaOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  120:736-744. 2013
    2013 African descent and glaucoma evaluation study: Asymmetry of structural measures in normal participantsJournal of Glaucoma.  22:65-72. 2013
    2013 Effect of an eye health education program on older African Americans' eye care utilization and attitudes about eye careJournal of the National Medical Association.  105:69-76. 2013
    2013 Estimated retinal ganglion cell counts in glaucomatous eyes with localized retinal nerve fiber layer defectsCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  156. 2013
    2012 Estimating the Rate of Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in GlaucomaCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  154:814-824.e1. 2012
    2012 Estimating the rate of retinal ganglion cell loss in glaucoma.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  154. 2012
    2012 Comparison of visual field severity classification systems for glaucomaJournal of Glaucoma.  21:551-561. 2012
    2012 Goniotomy versus circumferential trabeculotomy with an illuminated microcatheter in congenital glaucomaJournal of AAPOS.  16:424-427. 2012
    2012 Progression of patterns (POP): A machine classifier algorithm to identify glaucoma progression in visual fieldsInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  53:6557-6567. 2012
    2012 Low prevalence of myocilin mutations in an African American population with primary open-angle glaucomaMolecular Vision.  18:2241-2246. 2012
    2012 Regional variations in mechanical strain in the posterior human scleraInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  53:5326-5333. 2012
    2012 A combined index of structure and function for staging glaucomatous damage.Human Pathology.  130. 2012
    2012 Determinants of medication adherence to topical glaucoma therapyJournal of Glaucoma.  21:234-240. 2012
    2012 Circumferential trabeculotomy with an illuminated microcatheter in congenital glaucomasJournal of Glaucoma.  21:160-163. 2012
    2012 Effect of race, age, and axial length on optic nerve head parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by cirrus HD-OCTHuman Pathology.  130:312-318. 2012
    2012 Integrating event- and trend-based analyses to improve detection of glaucomatous visual field progressionOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  119:458-467. 2012
    2012 A combined index of structure and function for staging glaucomatous damageHuman Pathology.  130:1107-1116. 2012
    2012 Combining structural and functional measurements to improve estimates of rates of glaucomatous progressionCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  153:1197-1205.e1. 2012
    2012 Perspectives on biomechanical growth and remodeling mechanisms in glaucomaMechanics Research Communications.  42:92-106. 2012
    2012 Predicting glaucomatous progression in glaucoma suspect eyes using relevance vector machine classifiers for combined structural and functional measurementsInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  53:2382-2389. 2012
    2012 The human rhodopsin kinase promoter in an AAV5 vector confers rod- and cone-specific expression in the primate retina.Human Gene Therapy.  23:1101-1115. 2012
    2011 Variation in optic nerve and macular structure with age and race with spectral-domain optical coherence tomographyOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  118:2403-2408. 2011
    2011 GALC deletions increase the risk of primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The role of mendelian variants in complex diseasePLoS ONE.  6. 2011
    2011 Association between retinal thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and rod-mediated dark adaptation in non-exudative age-related maculopathyNature Reviews Neurology.  95:1427-1432. 2011
    2011 The effects of race, optic disc area, age, and disease severity on the diagnostic performance of spectral-domain optical coherence tomographyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  52:6148-6153. 2011
    2011 The post-illumination pupil response is reduced in glaucoma patientsInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  52:2287-2292. 2011
    2011 Interocular symmetry in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with the Cirrus HD-OCT in healthy eyes.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  151:514-21.e1. 2011
    2011 Ability of cirrus HD-OCT optic nerve head parameters to discriminate normal from glaucomatous eyes.Ophthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  118:241-8.e1. 2011
    2011 Profile and predictors of normal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomographyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  52:7872-7879. 2011
    2010 Author Response: Linear relation between structure and functionInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  51:6891-6892. 2010
    2010 A comparison of rates of change in neuroretinal rim area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in progressive glaucomaInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  51:3531-3539. 2010
    2010 African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)Human Pathology.  128:541-550. 2010
    2010 African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES): II. Ancestry differences in optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular structure in healthy subjectsHuman Pathology.  128:541-550. 2010
    2010 African descent and glaucoma evaluation study (ADAGES) III. Ancestry differences in visual function in healthy eyesHuman Pathology.  128:551-559. 2010
    2010 Post-illumination pupil response in subjects without ocular diseaseInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  51:2764-2769. 2010
    2010 In responseJournal of Glaucoma.  19:279-280. 2010
    2010 Optic disc morphology in open-angle glaucoma compared with anterior ischemic optic neuropathiesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  51:2003-2010. 2010
    2009 Patterns of glaucomatous visual field loss in sita fields automatically identified using independent component analysisTransactions- American Ophthalmological Society Annual Meeting.  107:136-144. 2009
    2009 The African descent and glaucoma evaluation study (ADAGES): Design and baseline dataHuman Pathology.  127:1136-1145. 2009
    2009 The association between self-reported glaucoma and Ginkgo biloba useJournal of Glaucoma.  18:543-545. 2009
    2009 Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - A reviewThoracic Surgery Clinics.  37:90-99. 2009
    2009 Comparing the full-threshold and Swedish interactive thresholding algorithms for short-wavelength automated perimetryInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  50:1726-1733. 2009
    2009 Artifacts on the optic nerve head analysis of the optical coherence tomography in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous eyesJournal of Glaucoma.  18:186-191. 2009
    2009 Visual function-specific perimetry to identify glaucomatous visual loss using three different definitions of visual field abnormalityInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  50:1234-1240. 2009
    2008 Trabectome (trabeculectomy - internal approach): Additional experience and extended follow-upTransactions- American Ophthalmological Society Annual Meeting.  106:149-159. 2008
    2008 The association between thyroid problems and glaucomaNature Reviews Neurology.  92:1503-1505. 2008
    2008 DiscussionJournal of Glaucoma.  17:592-593. 2008
    2008 Progressive normal-tension glaucomaJournal of Glaucoma.  17:591. 2008
    2008 Combined cataract extraction and trabeculotomy by the internal approach for coexisting cataract and open-angle glaucoma: initial results.Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery.  34:1096-1103. 2008
    2008 Differences in optic nerve structure between individuals of predominantly African and European ancestry: Implications for disease detection and pathogenesis.ASIA CCS 2013 - Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGSAC Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security.  2:65-69. 2008
    2008 Educating older African Americans about the preventive importance of routine comprehensive eye careJournal of the National Medical Association.  100:1089-1095. 2008
    2007 3-D histomorphometry of the normal and early glaucomatous monkey optic nerve head: Lamina cribrosa and peripapillary scleral position and thicknessInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  48:4597-4607. 2007
    2007 Selective vs Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty: Controversy In EvolutionCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  144:120-121. 2007
    2007 Three-dimensional histomorphometry of the normal and early glaucomatous monkey optic nerve head: Neural canal and subarachnoid space architectureInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  48:3195-3208. 2007
    2007 The association between thyroid problems and glaucoma.Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.  165:S69-S69. 2007
    2007 Detecting visual function abnormalities using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm and matrix perimetry in eyes with glaucomatous appearance of the optic discHuman Pathology.  125:340-345. 2007
    2007 Effect of glaucomatous damage on repeatability of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomographyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  48:1156-1163. 2007
    2007 Selective perimetry in glaucoma diagnosisBioprocessing Journal.  18:115-121. 2007
    2007 Axial length and optic disc size in normal eyesNature Reviews Neurology.  91:37-39. 2007
    2007 Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 to Discriminate Glaucomatous and Nonglaucomatous EyesCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  144. 2007
    2007 Correlations Between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Visual Field in Eyes With Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic NeuropathyCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  143. 2007
    2006 Comparison of the Moorfields Classification Using Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Subjective Optic Disc Classification in Detecting Glaucoma in Blacks and WhitesOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  113:2144-2149. 2006
    2006 In reply [6]Human Pathology.  124:1508-1509. 2006
    2006 Glaucomatous-like cupping associated with slow-growing supra-sellar intracranial lesionsNeuro-Ophthalmology.  30:111-115. 2006
    2006 Neuroprotection: Does it work for all neurological diseases?Anesthesiology Research and Practice.  24:362-367. 2006
    2006 Discrimination between glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous eyes using quantitative imaging devices and subjective optic nerve head assessmentInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  47:3374-3380. 2006
    2006 Perceived barriers to care and attitudes about vision and eye care: Focus groups with older African Americans and eye care providersInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  47:2797-2802. 2006
    2006 A statistical approach to the evaluation of covariate effects on the receiver operating characteristic curves of diagnostic tests in glaucomaInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  47:2520-2527. 2006
    2006 Agreement in assessing cup-to-disc ratio measurement among stereoscopic optic nerve head photographs, HRT II, and Stratus OCTJournal of Glaucoma.  15:183-189. 2006
    2006 Is there an association between pre-existing sleep apnoea and the development of glaucoma?Nature Reviews Neurology.  90:679-681. 2006
    2005 Glaucoma after ocular contusion: A cohort study of the United States Eye Injury RegistryJournal of Glaucoma.  14:470-473. 2005
    2005 Differences in visual function and optic nerve structure between healthy eyes of blacks and whitesHuman Pathology.  123:1547-1553. 2005
    2005 Curbing our enthusiasmJournal of Glaucoma.  14:329-330. 2005
    2005 Hypothyroidism and open-angle glaucoma - ReplyOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  112:733-733. 2005
    2005 Hypothyroidism and open-angle glaucoma [1] (multiple letters)Ophthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  112:733. 2005
    2005 Memantine and Progressive GlaucomaJournal of Glaucoma.  14:84-86. 2005
    2005 A comparison of false-positive test results between the stratus OCT III and the GDx-VCCInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  46. 2005
    2005 Axial length and optic disc size in normal eyesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  46. 2005
    2005 Differences in optic disc topography between black and white normal subjectsOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  112:33-39. 2005
    2005 Frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION)Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  46. 2005
    2005 Glaucoma following penetrating ocular trauma: A cohort study of the United States Eye Injury RegistryCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  139:100-105. 2005
    2004 Frequency doubling technology perimetry in non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy with altitudinal defectsNature Reviews Neurology.  88:1274-1279. 2004
    2004 Secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma associated with vitreous hemorrhage after ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysmCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  138:682-683. 2004
    2004 Hypothyroidism and the development of open-angle glaucoma in a male populationOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  111:1649-1652. 2004
    2004 Radionecrosis of the inferior occipital lobes with altitudinal visual field loss after gamma knife radiosurgeryJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  24:195-199. 2004
    2004 Risk assessment in the management of patients with ocular hypertensionCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  138:458-467. 2004
    2004 Neuroprotection: Does it work for all neurological diseases?Anesthesiology Research and Practice.  22:218-222. 2004
    2004 A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of super blue-green algae in patients with essential blepharospasm or Meige syndromeCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  138:18-32. 2004
    2004 Subjective and objective optic nerve assessment in African Americans and whitesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  45:2272-2278. 2004
    2004 Statins and other cholesterol-lowering medications and the presence of glaucomaHuman Pathology.  122:822-826. 2004
    2004 Relationship between electrophysiological and structural measurements in normal and glaucomatous eyes.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  45:U783-U783. 2004
    2004 Relationship between structure of optic nerve/nerve fiber layer and functional measurements in glaucomaBioprocessing Journal.  15:96-101. 2004
    2004 Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in African AmericansInternational Ophthalmology Clinics.  44:43-60. 2004
    2004 Glaucoma risk factor assessment and prevention: Lessons from coronary heart diseaseCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  138:11-18. 2004
    2003 Evaluating several sources of variability for standard and SWAP visual fields in glaucoma patients, suspects, and normalsOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  110:1895-1902. 2003
    2003 Thin corneas and the risk of progression.Journal of Glaucoma.  12:445-446. 2003
    2003 Racial differences in the association between optic disc topography and early glaucomaInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  44:3382-3387. 2003
    2003 Environmental tilt illusion as the only symptom of a thalamic astrocytomaJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  23:145-147. 2003
    2003 Is reading disability likely to interfere with glaucoma screening of adults using frequency-doubling technology perimetry?Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  135:816-820. 2003
    2003 Comparing the IOP-lowering efficacy of bimatoprost and latanoprost within separate glaucoma or ocular hypertension patient subsetsInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  44:U374-U374. 2003
    2003 Racial differences in the association between optic disc topography and glaucomaInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  44:U235-U235. 2003
    2003 Assessing visual function in clinical practiceOphthalmology Clinics of North America.  16. 2003
    2003 Evaluation of the pupillary light response as an objective measure of visual functionOphthalmology Clinics of North America.  16:143-153. 2003
    2003 Thin corneas and the risk of progression [2] (multiple letters)Journal of Glaucoma.  12:445-446. 2003
    2002 Ocular trauma-related glaucomaOphthalmology Clinics of North America.  15:215-223. 2002
    2002 Extent of visual dysfunction measured by frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in altitudinal visual field loss secondary to non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION)Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  43:U200-U200. 2002
    2002 Visual function and optic nerve structure in African Americans with healthy evesInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  43:U487-U487. 2002
    2002 Comparing machine learning classifiers for diagnosing glaucoma from standard automated perimetryInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  43:162-169. 2002
    2002 Aging-related changes in the multifocal electroretinogramJournal of the Optical Society of America A.  19:185-189. 2002
    2002 Emerging perspectives in glaucoma: Optimizing 24-hour control of intraocular pressureCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  133:S1. 2002
    2002 Management of iris melanoma with secondary glaucomaJournal of Glaucoma.  11:71-74. 2002
    2002 Optic disc morphology after AAION [2] (multiple letters)Ophthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  109:1198-1204. 2002
    2002 The role of neuroimaging studies in normal-pressure glaucomaJournal of Glaucoma.  11:277-278. 2002
    2001 Strategies for neuroprotectionJournal of Glaucoma.  10. 2001
    2001 Strategies for neuroprotectionJournal of Glaucoma.  10:S78-S80. 2001
    2001 Strategies for neuroprotection.Journal of Glaucoma.  10:S78-S80. 2001
    2001 Age-related changes in the multifocal electroretinogram of central vision.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  42:S69-S69. 2001
    2001 Measurements of disc shape in normal and glaucomatous optic discs.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  42:S135-S135. 2001
    2001 Visual processing in college students with and without dyslexia.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  42:S848-S848. 2001
    2001 Central disorders of vision in humansSurvey of Ophthalmology.  45:379-405. 2001
    2001 Neuroprotection: Does it work for any neurological diseases?Ophthalmic Practice.  19:298-302. 2001
    2000 Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomographyOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  107:2278-2282. 2000
    2000 Visual function-specific perimetry for indirect comparison of different ganglion cell populations in glaucomaInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  41:1783-1790. 2000
    2000 Evaluating sources of variability for standard and SWAP visual fields in glaucoma patients, suspects and normals.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  41:S85-S85. 2000
    2000 Quantitive measurements of optic disc asymmetry in patients with glaucoma and normal subjects.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  41:S121-S121. 2000
    2000 Evisceration: A new technique of trans-scleral implant placementOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.  16:322-325. 2000
    2000 Neovascular glaucoma and ocular ischemic syndromeJournal of Glaucoma.  9:409-412. 2000
    2000 Short-wavelength automated perimetry and standard perimetry in the detection of progressive optic disc cuppingHuman Pathology.  118:1231-1236. 2000
    1999 Visual dysfunction in patients receiving vigabatrin: Clinical and electrophysiologic findingsNeurology.  53:2082-2087. 1999
    1999 Twenty-four-hour pattern of intraocular pressure in the aging populationInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  40:2912-2917. 1999
    1999 Disseminated histoplasmosis causing reversible gaze palsy and optic neuropathyJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  19:140-143. 1999
    1999 Comparison of short wavelength automated perimetry and conventional white-on-white perimetry in patients with progressive optic disk cuppingInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  40:S581-S581. 1999
    1999 Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using Optical Coherence TomographyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  40:S75-S75. 1999
    1999 Prevalence of periocular depigmentation after repeated botulinum toxin A injections in African American patientsJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  19:7-9. 1999
    1999 Visual environmental rotation: A novel disorder of visiospatial integrationJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  19:13-16. 1999
    1999 Bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome secondary to giant cell arteritis progressing despite corticosteroid treatmentCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  127:102-104. 1999
    1999 Disseminated histoplasmosis causing reversible gaze palsy and optic neuropathyJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  19:140-143. 1999
    1999 Prevalence of periocular depigmentation after repeated botulinum toxin A injections in african american patientsJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  19:7-9. 1999
    1998 Pachymeningitis with multiple cranial neuropathies and unilateral optic neuropathy secondary to Pseudomonas aeruginosaJournal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.  18:196-200. 1998
    1998 A relative afferent pupillary defect without any visual sensory deficitHuman Pathology.  116:1544-1545. 1998
    1998 Herpes simplex encephalitis and bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome after craniotomyCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  126:456-460. 1998
    1997 Radiation optic neuropathy after stereotactic radiosurgeryOphthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology.  104:1634-1643. 1997
    1995 3-DIMENSIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF VASCULAR PROLIFERATION IN EXPERIMENTALLY-INDUCED ROP - A SEM CORROSION CAST STUDYInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.  36:S66-S66. 1995

    Chapter

    Year Title Altmetric
    2016 Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO).  507-557. 2016

    Research Overview

  • My primary research explores the mechanisms underlying the greater predilection to develop glaucomatous injury in individuals of African ancestry and investigates the morphometry of the optic nerve head as a biomarker to predict the development and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The overarching hypothesis is that variation in ONH morphometry and biomechanical properties are largely responsible for the increased in the susceptibility to IOP-related optic nerve injury associated with African ancestry. Related hypotheses are explored through patient-oriented research, including structural and functional evaluation of the optic nerve in the NEI-sponsored African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES I and II) cohort (1), in-vivo studies imaging the lamina cribrosa, ADAGES IV (2), ex-vivo morphometric studies of the lamina cribrosa and posterior sclera utilizing post-mortem human donor tissues (3) and imaging-based health services research to improve care to underserved populations in the CDC-sponsored Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) study.

    1) ADAGES (I,II and III) is a NEI-funded multicenter cohort study designed to evaluation the structural and functional progression of the optic nerve in glaucoma in individuals of European (ED) and African descent (AD). The study began based on my K23 grant awarded in 2001 and is now in its 12th year. The other operational sites are the University of California, San Diego and Columbia University. This collaboration has resulted in 35 peer-reviewed manuscripts and 59 abstracts. This work has been previously funded through foundation and NIH support (Research to Prevent Blindness, Glaucoma Research Foundation, American Health Assistance Foundation, EyeSight Foundation of Alabama, NIH K23: EY 13959-01, NIH U10: EY 14267-01, NIH U10: EY 14267-02, NIH RO1: EY019869-01)

    2) ADAGES IV: Using in-vivo imaging, we are evaluating structural biomarkers for glaucoma susceptibility within “deep” optic nerve structures visualized within SDOCT datasets. Our particular interest is in defining racial differences in the rate and mode of change in these structures over time to better understand potential differences in pathobiology and to better define progression of glaucomatous disease in this at-risk and underserved population. We have a developed particular focus on the deep optic nerve structures as they not only may serve as new disease biomarkers but also may have mechanistic involvement with the pathogenesis of axonal injury. (NIH R01: EY026574)

    3) DONER (Digital Optic Nerve Episcopic Reconstruction) Library: We have developed a unique library of high-resolution 3D reconstructions from human donor eyes with associated clinical records. Donor ocular tissues were fixed at physiologic and elevated pressures to mimic in-vivo loading conditions in order to enable accurate morphometric and biomechanical analysis. This database currently contains over 190 reconstructed donor pairs. Each reconstruction was develop using an episcopic fluorescent technique that produces high-fidelity reconstructions of the load-bearing connective tissues of the optic nerve head to a resolution of 1.5 cubic micron voxel. We are utilizing these unique digital reconstructions to test the hypothesis that variations in three- dimensional (3D) laminar architecture are critical in determining individual susceptibility to glaucomatous injury. Specifically, that variations in laminar 3D architecture and biomechanical behavior are associated with well-described risk factors for glaucomatous disease such as increasing age and African ancestry. This work has been funded through the NEI and foundation support (NIH RO1: EY18926, NIH RO1: EY19333, NIH RO1: EY018923, Research to Prevent Blindness - Clinician Scientist Award, EyeSight Foundation Research Grant).
  • Principal Investigator On

  • Unrestricted Grant  awarded by Research to Prevent Blindness 2018 - 2022
  • Determinants of the Biomechanical Behavior of the Human Lamina Cribrosa  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2018 - 2022
  • xADAGES III: Contribution of Genotype to Glaucoma Phenotype  awarded by University of California, San Diego 2013 - 2018
  • Unrestricted Grant  awarded by Research to Prevent Blindness 2013 - 2017
  • Vision Science Research Center P30 Core Grant - Electronics Module  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2010 - 2016
  • African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation (ADAGES) II: Glaucoma Progression  awarded by University of California, San Diego 2010 - 2016
  • Private Grant  awarded by SOLX, INC. 2011 - 2015
  • Statistical Analyses Service for Dr. Paul Lee of the University of Michigan  awarded by University of Michigan 2013 - 2014
  • Proficient Glaucoma Care Delivery Model Based on Automated Structural and Functional Assessment of the Optic Nerve  awarded by CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/DHHS 2012 - 2014
  • Unrestricted Departmental Support  awarded by Research to Prevent Blindness 2012 - 2013
  • Racial Variations in Optic Nerve Head Structure and Biomechanics  awarded by LEGACY HEALTH SYSTEM 2008 - 2013
  • African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation (ADAGES)  awarded by University of California, San Diego 2009 - 2013
  • UAB Subaward - Admixture Mapping of Glaucoma Genes in African Americans  awarded by Duke University 2008 - 2013
  • Private Grant  awarded by HEIDELBERG ENGINEERING 2012 - 2013
  • Age-Related Changes in Optic Nerve Head Structure and Biomechanics  awarded by LEGACY HEALTH SYSTEM 2008 - 2013
  • Physician - Scientist Award  awarded by Research to Prevent Blindness 2005 - 2011
  • Investigator On

  • Using Telemedicine to Prevent Blindness in an at-Risk Rural Alabama Population - Component A  awarded by CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/DHHS 2019 - 2024
  • Perceptual Mechanisms Underlying Reading Difficulties in Glaucoma  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2017 - 2022
  • Optic Nerve Head Mechanobiology in Glaucoma  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2018 - 2022
  • Early Detection of Glaucoma Progression Using a Novel Individualized Approach  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2017 - 2021
  • Using Telemedicine to Improve Glaucoma Care: An Emerging Eye Care Delivery Model  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2016 - 2021
  • African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation (ADAGES) IV: Alterations of the Lamina Cribrosa in Progression  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2017 - 2021
  • Enhancing Glaucoma Medication Adherence Among African Americans  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2015 - 2020
  • Center for Translational Research on Aging and Mobility - Core B: Pilot Core  awarded by National Institute on Aging/NIH/DHHS 2014 - 2020
  • Center for Translational Research on Aging and Mobility  awarded by National Institute on Aging/NIH/DHHS 2014 - 2019
  • Continuous Telemetric Measurement and Chronic Control of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure  awarded by BRIGHT FOCUS FOUNDATION 2016 - 2018
  • Inflammatory, Cholesterol and Genetic Characteristics in Older Adults in Normal Retinal Health as Potential Biomarkers for the Incident Development of Early Age-Related Maculopathy  awarded by EyeSight Foundation of Alabama 2010 - 2018
  • Age- and Race-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Structure and Biomechanics  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2013 - 2017
  • Improving Access to and Quality Eye Care in an At-Risk, Underserved Population  awarded by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promo./CDC/DHHS 2010 - 2016
  • Vision Science Research Center  awarded by National Eye Institute/NIH/DHHS 2010 - 2016
  • Private Grant  awarded by ALCON RESEARCH, LTD. 2015
  • Education And Training

  • Master of Public Health in Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham 2004
  • Doctor of Medicine in Ophthalmology Residency Program, University of Arkansas System (AR) : Community College at Hope (2-year campus) 1993
  • Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry, Drury College 1989
  • University of Arkansas Medical Center, Internship 1994
  • UAB Hospital, Residency 1997
  • Johns Hopkins Hospital, Postdoctoral Fellowship 1998
  • Full Name

  • Christopher Girkin