Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone carcinoma with high morbidity that happens mainly in children and young adults. As the key components of gene-regulatory networks, microRNAs (miRNAs) control many critical pathophysiological processes, including initiation and progression of cancers. The objective of this study is to summarize and evaluate the potential of miRNAs as targets for prevention and treatment of OS in mouse models, and to explore the methodological quality of current studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Wan Fang Database, VIP Database, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and Chinese BioMedical since their beginning date to 10 May 2016. Two reviewers separately screened the controlled studies, which estimate the effects of miRNAs on osteosarcoma in mice. A pair-wise analysis was performed. Thirty six studies with enough randomization were selected and included in the meta-analysis. We found that blocking oncogenic or restoring decreased miRNAs in cancer cells could significantly suppress the progression of OS in vivo, as assessed by tumor volume and tumor weight. This meta-analysis suggests that miRNAs are potential therapeutic targets for OS and correction of the altered expression of miRNAs significantly suppresses the progression of OS in mouse models, however, the overall methodological quality of studies included here was low, and more animal studies with the rigourous design must be carried out before a miRNA-based treatment could be translated from animal studies to clinical trials.