TL1A is a member of the TNF superfamily and its expression is increased in the mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Neutralizing anti-mouse TL1A Ab attenuates chronic colitis in two T-cell driven murine models, suggesting that TL1A is a central modulator of gut mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. We showed previously that TL1A is induced by immune complexes via the FcγR signaling pathway. In this study, we report that multiple bacteria, including gram negative organisms (E. coli, E. coli Nissle 1917, Salmonella typhimurium), gram positive organisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis), partial anaerobes (Campylobacter jejuni), and obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium breve, Clostridium A4) activate TL1A expression in human APC, including monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Bacterially induced TL1A mRNA expression correlates with the detection of TL1A protein levels. TL1A induced by bacteria is mediated in part by the TLR signaling pathway and inhibited by downstream blockade of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Microbial induction of TL1A production by human APC potentiated CD4+ T-cell effector function by augmenting IFN-γ production. Our findings suggest a role for TL1A in pro-inflammatory APC-T cell interactions and implicate TL1A in host responses to enteric microorganisms. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.