There is evidence that benign, Ph-negative hematopoietic progenitors persist in the marrow and blood of some patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). A number of pilot studies using purged and unpurged marrow or peripheral blood autografts have demonstrated that autologous transplantation can result in transient cytogenetic responses in CML. Although not curative, this procedure may be associated with longer-than-expected patient survival and represents an alternative treatment for patients ineligible for allogeneic transplantation and not responding to interferon-alpha therapy. Several novel approaches are being developed to improve graft purging and eliminate residual leukemia post-transplantation. Such approaches may allow for long-term restoration of Ph-negative hematopoiesis following the procedure.