1H and 13C NMR studies on the self‐association of retinoic acid

Academic Article


  • The monomer–dimer equilibrium of retinoic acid in carbon tetrachloride was studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The dimer dissociation constant at 24°C was determined to be 0.38 mM from a fit of the changes in the carboxylic acid carbon chemical shift as a function of concentration. The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant obtained from the 13C NMR signals was used to determine the enthalpy (8.0 kcal mol−1) and entropy (12 cal mol−1 K−1) changes for the dimer dissociation process. These results were shown to be more precise than the values obtained from the carboxylic acid proton resonance. Copyright © 1990 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Waterhous DV; Muccio DD
  • Start Page

  • 223
  • End Page

  • 226
  • Volume

  • 28
  • Issue

  • 3