OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, or race-related disparities in incidence, across the age spectrum in adults. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. SETTING: National sample. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling black and white adults recruited between 2003 and 2007. MEASUREMENTS: Incident hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation over 10 years of follow-up in 10,801 adults, stratified according to age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75). RESULTS: There was no evidence (P ≥ .68) of an age-related difference in the incidence of hypertension for white men (average incidence 38%), black men (48%), or black women (54%), although for white women incidence increased with age (45-54, 27%; ≥75, 40%). Incidence of diabetes mellitus was lower at older ages for white men (45-54, 15%; ≥75, 8%), black men (45-54, 29%; ≥75, 13%), and white women (45-54, 11%; ≥75, 4%), although there was no evidence (P = .11) of age-related changes for black women (average incidence 21%). For dyslipidemia, incidence for all race-sex groups was approximately 20% for aged 45 to 54 but approximately 30% for aged 54 to 64 and 65 to 74 and approximately 22% for aged 75 and older. Incidence of atrial fibrillation was low at age 45 to 54 (<5%) but for aged 75 and older was approximately 20% for whites and 11% for blacks. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia was higher in blacks across the age spectrum but lower for atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSION: Incidence of risk factors remains high in older adults. Blacks have a higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia after age 45, underscoring the ongoing importance of prevention of all three conditions in mid- to later life.