© 2015 the American Physiological Society. Despite the greatly expanded knowledge on the regulation of immune response by protein molecules, there is increasing understanding that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are also an integral component of this regulatory network. Abnormal immune response serves a central role in the initiation, progression, and exacerbation of inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury. Dysregulation of ncRNAs has been linked to various immunopathologies. In this review, we highlighted the role of ncRNAs in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity and summarized recent findings that ncRNAs participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases via their regulation of pulmonary immunity. We also discussed therapeutic potentials for targeting ncRNAs to treat these lung disorders.