Compartmental differences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) between the gut and peripheral blood and within the gut were examined. Biopsy specimens from the colon and ileum and peripheral blood samples were collected from chronically HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 envelope sequences were examined from cell-associated DNA and RNA and virion RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no evidence of compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the gut and peripheral blood and within the gut (colon and ileum). HIV-1 sequences detected in the gut were transcriptionally active and were also found in peripheral blood from matching time points, providing evidence of ongoing virus production in the gut and equilibrium of HIV-1 between the gut and peripheral blood compartments.