© Copyright 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Colorectal surgery patients frequently suffer from postoperative complications. Patients with complications have been shown to be at higher risk for mortality, poor oncologic outcomes, additional complications, and worse quality of life. Complications are increasingly recognized as markers of quality of care with more use of risk-adjusted national surgical databases and increasing transparency in health care. Quality improvement work in colorectal surgery has identified methods to decrease complication rates and improve outcomes in this patient population. Future work will continue to identify best practices and standardized ways to measure quality of care.